# Analysis of the Factors Affecting the Construction of Subway Stations in Residential Areas

^{1}

^{2}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Literature Review

## 3. Methodology

#### 3.1. Forecasting Passenger Trips by Unit Coefficient Method

_{i}is the trip generation for the i district; X

_{pi}is the total population, number of adults, students, or jobs in the i transportation district; and C

_{pi}is the trip generation factor corresponding to X

_{pi}.

#### 3.2. Forecasting Passenger Trip Distribution by Gravity Model

#### 3.3. Forecasting Travel Mode Options by Dis-Aggregated Analysis

## 4. Results

#### 4.1. Trip Volume and Station Construction

#### 4.2. Trip Distribution and Station Construction

^{2}); ξ is the non-linear coefficient of the line network; and the meaning is the ratio of the actual distance between stations of the line network to the linear distance.

#### 4.3. Travel Mode Selection and Station Construction

## 5. Case Study

## 6. Discussion

## 7. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 3.**Distribution of entrances and exits. (

**a**) Two unidirectional openings on both sides. (

**b**) Two bidirectional openings on both sides. (

**c**) Four bi-directional openings on both sides.

Limitations of Previous Studies | Improvements of This Study |
---|---|

The form and layout of the traffic network are determined by predicting the traffic passenger flow, and there are few studies on the internal construction of subway stations. | The variables in the mathematical model are used to predict the number of future traffic passenger flow, travel distribution and traffic choice, so as to deeply analyze the construction of subway stations. |

Subway Station Area Coverage | Distribution Form | Relationship between B and b |
---|---|---|

Low- and medium-density residential areas | Two unidirectional openings on both sides | $B\ge b$ |

High-density residential area | Two bidirectional openings on both sides | $B\ge b\times \partial /2$ |

Mixed residential, commercial, and administrative areas | Four bi-directional openings on both sides | $B\ge b\times \partial /2$ |

Station | Station Format | Type of Station | Interchange Routes | Number of Subterranean Levels | Platform Type | Number of Entrances and Exits |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Tiantongyuan East Station | East T | Interchange station | Interchange between Lines 17 and 13A and branch Line 17 | 2 levels | Dual island platform s with four lines | 4 |

Entrance/Exit Location | Purpose |
---|---|

Exit A, in front of the residential area of Tiantongyuan East III, in a north–south direction along the road | Allows for passenger flows of Tiantongyuan III |

Exit B, in front of the Likang Hongqiao Market, south-to-north along the road | Allows for passenger flows of the market |

Exit C, within green space in the southeast quadrant | Leaves an entrance/exit for unplanned areas to accommodate passenger flows |

Exit D, in front of the residential area of Tiantongyuan II, south-to-north along the road | Allows for passenger flows of Tiantongyuan II |

Type of Planning | Site Construction Elements |
---|---|

Urban transport planning | The subway stations in districts i and j should be direct stations to reduce transit. Access widths should be designed to maximize peak hour pedestrian flow to save travel time. |

Regional planning | The entrances and exits of the subway stations should be connected to the entrances and exits of housing communities to avoid excessive distances. Reduce interchanges between the subway and other modes of transportation in the interval from district i to j. |

Construction Conditions | Capacity Analysis | Site Construction Options |
---|---|---|

Entrance/exit escalators | The 1 m-wide escalator moves 6720 passengers per hour at a speed of 0.5 m/s, and the same width of stairs moves 4200 passengers per hour (going up). | Escalators are more prominent in terms of time saving or passenger throughput than subway station entrances and exits that use stairs to travel up and down. |

Length of interchange passageways | The number of people passing through a 1 m-wide lane is 5000 per hour in one direction and 4000 per hour in mixed traffic in both directions. | The latest regulations on interchange passages stipulate that the interchange time for passenger flow shall not exceed 5 min, and the distance of the passages shall be appropriately shortened under the condition of meeting the peak passenger flow passage. |

Layout Features | Subway Station Locations | Bus Stop Locations |
---|---|---|

The interchange between subway and bus is concentrated in one place, making it easy to use and efficient to transfer. | Middle of the road | Set on both sides of the access road and connected to the site via an underpass or pedestrian bridge. |

Side of the road | Set on both sides of the subway station, the bus stop is located on one side with the subway station. |

Layout Features | Bus Stop Format | Subway Station Entrance/Exit Locations |
---|---|---|

Subways and bus interchanges are independent of each other, but weakly connected to each other and inefficient for interchange. | Island | The entrances to the subway stations are located on either side of the center of the bus stop. |

Side | The subway station entrances are connected to each bus stop via underground passages. |

Residential Area Name | Total Number of Households | Travel Generation Coefficient | Number of Current Residents (Valuation) | Forecast of Future Travel Volume | Proportion of Taking Subway as the Mode of Travel | Predicted Number of Subway Trips (Persons/Hour) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Dongfang yinzuo | 532 | 1.5 | 1596 | 2394 | 40% | 958 |

Wuyishan district | 983 | 2949 | 4423 | 42% | 1858 | |

No.18 yard of Fuchunjiang | 994 | 2982 | 4473 | 45% | 2013 |

The Width of Entrance/Exit Passageway (m) | Number of Tickets Machines | Number of Ticket Gates | Number of Passengers Leaving the Subway Station at Peak (Persons/Hour) | Number of Entrance/Exit Escalators (Down) | Number of Entrance/Exit Stairs |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

5.8 | 8 | 9 | 1440 | 1 | 1 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Dai, P.; Han, S.; Yang, X.; Fu, H.; Wang, Y.; Liu, J.
Analysis of the Factors Affecting the Construction of Subway Stations in Residential Areas. *Sustainability* **2022**, *14*, 13075.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su142013075

**AMA Style**

Dai P, Han S, Yang X, Fu H, Wang Y, Liu J.
Analysis of the Factors Affecting the Construction of Subway Stations in Residential Areas. *Sustainability*. 2022; 14(20):13075.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su142013075

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Dai, Peng, Song Han, Xuxu Yang, Hui Fu, Yanjun Wang, and Jianjun Liu.
2022. "Analysis of the Factors Affecting the Construction of Subway Stations in Residential Areas" *Sustainability* 14, no. 20: 13075.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su142013075