# Performance Assessment and Comparison of Two Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters Developed for Pavement Application: Case Study

^{1}

^{2}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Structures and Methods

#### 2.1. Structures

#### 2.2. Test and Evaluation

#### 2.2.1. Mechanical Performance

#### 2.2.2. Electromechanical Coupling Performance

_{1}is the external work, t is the time, Q

_{2}is the output energy, U

_{out}is the output voltage, and R

_{m}is the matching impedance.

#### 2.2.3. Electrical Performance

^{E}is the flexibility coefficient tensor under constant electric field, d is the piezoelectric strain constant tensor, d

^{t}is the transposition of d, E is the tensor for the external electric field, T is the stress tensor, D is the electric displacement tensor, and ε

^{T}is the dielectric constant tensor under a constant stress condition.

_{oc}, output voltage U

_{out}, and output power P

_{out}collected by the pile unit under the vertical stress T(t) can be deduced from the linear piezoelectric equation, as shown in (6) through (8):

_{33}is the piezoelectric voltage constant, R

_{p}is the internal resistance, and R

_{L}is the load resistance.

_{0}and U’ are the peak voltages before and after the electrical fatigue test, respectively.

## 3. Results and Discussion

#### 3.1. Mechanical Performance

- Use a metal top plate instead of a plastic top plate to increase the stiffness of the shell, thus reducing the uneven deformation between the device and pavement;
- Apply prestress to the piezoelectric device using bolts to produce sufficient compressive deformation before the load is applied;
- Use a high-precision lathe and three-dimensional printing technology to decrease the fabrication errors in the preparation process.

#### 3.2. Electromechanical Conversion Performance

#### 3.3. Electrical Performance

#### 3.3.1. Electrical Output

_{L}is the output power of the circuit, U

_{L}is the measured output voltage, and Δt is the accumulated time of the output voltage waveform.

#### 3.3.2. Electrical Fatigue

## 4. Conclusions

- The elastic modulus of the pile structure device was higher than that of the bridge structure device, but the modulus of both devices was significantly lower than that of the pavement structure. Further optimization of the package and fabrication is needed to improve the modulus of the piezoelectric device;
- The electromechanical conversion coefficient of the pile structure device was superior to that of the bridge structure device. Both structures’ coefficients were smaller than 10% and not sensitive to the load characteristics;
- Both of the piezoelectric devices achieved mW power under the wheel load simulated by the MMLS3 and could be utilized to supply low-power sensors;
- The material stiffness, electromechanical conversion efficiency, and electrical performance of the pile structure device are superior to those of the bridge structure device, which has better application prospects in the field of pavement energy harvesting.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 4.**Electromechanical conversion coefficient: (

**a**) pile-unit-based piezoelectric device and (

**b**) bridge-unit-based piezoelectric device.

Device | Voltage (V) | Power (mW) | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Mean Value before Test | Mean Value after Test | Attenuation | Before | After | Attenuation | |

Pile structure | 349 | 347 | No Sig. | 3.4 | 3.6 | No Sig. |

Bridge structure | 95 | 58 | −39% | 2.6 | 1.4 | −46% |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Li, C.; Liu, S.; Zhao, H.; Tian, Y.
Performance Assessment and Comparison of Two Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters Developed for Pavement Application: Case Study. *Sustainability* **2022**, *14*, 863.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14020863

**AMA Style**

Li C, Liu S, Zhao H, Tian Y.
Performance Assessment and Comparison of Two Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters Developed for Pavement Application: Case Study. *Sustainability*. 2022; 14(2):863.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14020863

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Li, Chenchen, Shifu Liu, Hongduo Zhao, and Yu Tian.
2022. "Performance Assessment and Comparison of Two Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters Developed for Pavement Application: Case Study" *Sustainability* 14, no. 2: 863.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14020863