Socioeconomic Determinants of Female Development in the Rural North West Province of South Africa
2. Literature Review
Theoretical and Conceptual Framework
3. Materials and Methods
3.1. Study Area
3.2. Sample Size and Selection
3.3. Model Specification
3.3.1. Descriptive Statistics
3.3.2. Inferential Statistics
3.4. Ethical Approval
4. Results and Discussion
4.1. The Socio-Economic Characteristics of the Rural Women
4.2. Degree of Activity for Award, Incentives, and Competition
4.3. Probit Regression Analysis of the Determinants of the Respondent’s Participation in AIC
- Policymakers should continue to advocate for enhanced education as female farmers need to participate in development programme(s);
- Younger generations of women should be encouraged into agriculture;
- There should be the establishment of cooperative societies as this encourages female farmers to participate in development programmes;
- More incentives should be provided to assist the respondents with the re-payment of their lease, as the majority did not own their farmland. A decrease in the farm sizes will lead to a decrease in participation in the development programme;
- Access to timely extension services through extension agents should be provided as it has a significant impact on production as well as participating in the development programme;
- The responsible use of farming inputs should be encouraged among farmers to avoid contamination and pollution of water;
- Responsible accounting attitude and basic financial management and book-keeping should be encouraged and sustained among farmers.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Educational status||(Continuous) Number of years of academic|
|Farm size||Actual in hectares|
|Income level||Continuous (Actual amount in Rands)|
|Extension visit||Dummy (0,1)|
|Extension source||Continuous (Ticked type of extension source(s))|
|Membership of cooperative||Dummy (0,1)|
|Involvement in land ownership, administration and decision making||Dummy (0,1)|
|Access to all relevant documentation||Dummy (0,1)|
|Involvement in the adjudication|
|Responsible use of farming inputs||Dummy (0,1)|
|Improved farming methods||Dummy 0,1)|
|Lack of infrastructural growth||Dummy (0,1)|
|Welfare and creation of temporary jobs||Dummy (0,1)|
|Contribution to employee wellbeing||Dummy (0,1)|
|Farm size (Hectares)|
|Income level (Rand)|
|Statement Activity for Participants in AIC||Frequency (%)||Mean Score Rank|
|Involvement in the ownership, management, and decision-making aspects of the entity||103(66.0)||34(21.8)||19(12.2)||1.46||7th|
|Access to all relevant documents for verification process||83(53.2)||43(27.6)||30(19.2)||1.66||8th|
|Willing to be interviewed at all adjudication process||81(51.9)||44(28.2)||31(19.9)||1.68||9th|
|Demonstrate responsible use of production inputs, such as pesticides, fertilizers, and vaccines||104(66.7)||38(24.3)||14(9.0)||1.42||5th|
|Demonstrates an understanding of improved farming methods||111(71.2)||27(17.3)||18(11.5)||1.40||4th|
|Demonstrating a good sense of financial management and bookkeeping||104(66.7)||37(23.7)||15(9.6)||1.43||6th|
|Produce is sold locally/internationally to enhance economic growth||119(76.3)||21(13.4)||16(10.3)||1.34||3rd|
|Creation of temporary and permanent jobs||128(82.0)||14(9.0)||14(9.0)||1.27||1st|
|Contribution to employee well-being and development||122(78.2)||17(10.9)||17(10.9)||1.33||2nd|
|Variables||Coef.||Std. Err.||Z||P > |z|||VIF||Eigenvalue|
|Incomelevl||−3.74 × 10−6||1.40 × 10−6||−2.66||0.008||1.18||0.4233|
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Ijatuyi, E.J.; Oladele, O.I.; Abiolu, O.A.; Omotayo, A.O. Socioeconomic Determinants of Female Development in the Rural North West Province of South Africa. Sustainability 2022, 14, 547. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14010547
Ijatuyi EJ, Oladele OI, Abiolu OA, Omotayo AO. Socioeconomic Determinants of Female Development in the Rural North West Province of South Africa. Sustainability. 2022; 14(1):547. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14010547Chicago/Turabian Style
Ijatuyi, Enioluwa Jonathan, Oladimeji Idowu Oladele, Oluremi Adenike Abiolu, and Abiodun Olusola Omotayo. 2022. "Socioeconomic Determinants of Female Development in the Rural North West Province of South Africa" Sustainability 14, no. 1: 547. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14010547