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Article

Improving Water Use Efficiency through Reduced Irrigation for Sustainable Cotton Production

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Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, MNS University of Agriculture, Multan 60000, Pakistan
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Physiology Section, Central Cotton Research Institute, Multan 60000, Pakistan
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National Centre of Excellence in Geology, University of Peshawar Pakistan, Peshawar 25120, Pakistan
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Department of Agronomy, MNS University of Agriculture, Multan 60000, Pakistan
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Pesticide Quality Control Laboratory, Multan 60000, Pakistan
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Soil and Water Testing Laboratory Mianwali, Mianwali 42200, Pakistan
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Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Environmental Sciences, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
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Department of Biological Sciences and Technology, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Azhar Abbas
Sustainability 2021, 13(7), 4044; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13074044
Received: 31 December 2020 / Revised: 20 February 2021 / Accepted: 23 February 2021 / Published: 6 April 2021
The socio-economic development of a country is highly dependent on water availability. Nowadays, increasing water scarcity is a major global challenge. Continuing improvements in water-use efficiency are essential for cotton production sustainability. Reduced irrigation in cotton could be a solution to water shortage in the arid climate without compromising the cotton yield. Therefore, a two-year field study was conducted to assess the effect of two levels of irrigation i.e., 50% and 100% of available water content (AWC) on the yield of four cotton genotypes (CIM-678, CIM-343, CRIS-613, and CYTO-510). The maximum seed cotton yield was observed in CIM-678, which was 2.31 and 2.46 Mg ha−1 under 100% AWC during 2018 and 2019, respectively, and was non-significantly reduced by 7.7 and 8.94%, owing to deficit irrigation. The maximum water use efficiency (WUE) of 0.55 and 0.64 Kg ha−1 mm−1 was observed under 50% AWC in CIM-678, which was significantly higher than WUE at 100% AWC during both years. Leaf area index and physiological parameters such as photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance were not significantly affected by deficit irrigation. So, it was concluded that the reduced irrigation technique performed well without significant yield loss, improve WUE, and saved 37 cm of water that could be used for other crops or to increase the area of the cotton crop. View Full-Text
Keywords: available water contents (AWC); water use efficiency (WUE); irrigation; time-domain refractometry (TDR); soil moisture available water contents (AWC); water use efficiency (WUE); irrigation; time-domain refractometry (TDR); soil moisture
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ahmad, H.S.; Imran, M.; Ahmad, F.; Rukh, S.; Ikram, R.M.; Rafique, H.M.; Iqbal, Z.; Alsahli, A.A.; Alyemeni, M.N.; Ali, S.; Tanveer-ul-Haq. Improving Water Use Efficiency through Reduced Irrigation for Sustainable Cotton Production. Sustainability 2021, 13, 4044. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13074044

AMA Style

Ahmad HS, Imran M, Ahmad F, Rukh S, Ikram RM, Rafique HM, Iqbal Z, Alsahli AA, Alyemeni MN, Ali S, Tanveer-ul-Haq. Improving Water Use Efficiency through Reduced Irrigation for Sustainable Cotton Production. Sustainability. 2021; 13(7):4044. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13074044

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ahmad, Hafiz S., Muhammad Imran, Fiaz Ahmad, Shah Rukh, Rao M. Ikram, Hafiz M. Rafique, Zafar Iqbal, Abdulaziz A. Alsahli, Mohammed N. Alyemeni, Shafaqat Ali, and Tanveer-ul-Haq. 2021. "Improving Water Use Efficiency through Reduced Irrigation for Sustainable Cotton Production" Sustainability 13, no. 7: 4044. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13074044

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