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Article

Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Chlorophyll Content for Precision Nitrogen Management in Durum Wheat Cultivars under Semi-Arid Conditions

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Department of Plant and Animal Production, Kiziltepe Vocational School, Mardin Artuklu University, 47060 Mardin, Turkey
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Department of Field Crop, Faculty of Agriculture, Dicle University, 21280 Diyarbakir, Turkey
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Department of Agronomy, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinjapur 5200, Bangladesh
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Department of Agricultural Biology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ruhuna, Peradeniya 20400, Sri Lanka
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Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Poonch Rawalakot, Rawalakot 12350, Pakistan
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Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Siirt University, 56001 Siirt, Turkey
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Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kafrelsheikh, 33516 Kafrelsheikh, Egypt
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alexandra Jacquelyn Burgess
Sustainability 2021, 13(7), 3725; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13073725
Received: 21 February 2021 / Revised: 22 March 2021 / Accepted: 23 March 2021 / Published: 26 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Agricultural Production of Crop Plants)
To impart sustainability to modern intensive farming systems, environmental pollution caused by nitrogenous fertilizers in needs to be reduced by optimizing their doses. To estimate the grain yield and nutrtional quallity of wheat, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and chlorophyll content (SPAD) are potential screening tools to identify the N deficiency and screen out the promising cultivars. The two-year field study was comprised with five levels of nitrogen (N) (control, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg N ha−1) and two durum wheat genotypes (Sena and Svevo). The experimental design was split-plot, in which N levels were placed in the main plots, while wheat genotypes were arranged in sub-plots. To predict the yield and quality traits, the NDVI and SPAD values recorded at heading, anthesis and milky growth stages were taken as response variables. The results revealed that N fertilization significantly influenced the SPAD and NDVI attributed traits of durum wheat, except NDVI at milky stage (NDVI-M) during the first year. The maximum value of NDVI was recorded by 150 kg N ha−1, while control treatment gave the minimum value. The grain yield was increased with the increasing dose of the N up to 100 kg N ha−1 (4121 kg ha−1), and thereafter, it was declined with further increased of N levels. However, the variation between the genotypes was not significant, except NDVI and SPAD values at the milky stage. The genotype Svevo had the highest NDVI values at all growth stages, while the genotype Sena recorded the maximum SPAD values during both years. Similarly, the N levels significantly influenced the quality traits (protein, wet gluten, starch test weight and Zeleny sedimentation) of both genotypes. The highly significant relationship of SPAD and NDVI with the grain yield and yield attributes showed their reliability as indicators for determining the N deficiency and selection of superior wheat genotypes for ensuring food security under climate change scenario. View Full-Text
Keywords: chlorophyll; wheat genotypes; grain yield; milky grain stage; nutritional quality chlorophyll; wheat genotypes; grain yield; milky grain stage; nutritional quality
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kizilgeci, F.; Yildirim, M.; Islam, M.S.; Ratnasekera, D.; Iqbal, M.A.; Sabagh, A.E. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Chlorophyll Content for Precision Nitrogen Management in Durum Wheat Cultivars under Semi-Arid Conditions. Sustainability 2021, 13, 3725. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13073725

AMA Style

Kizilgeci F, Yildirim M, Islam MS, Ratnasekera D, Iqbal MA, Sabagh AE. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Chlorophyll Content for Precision Nitrogen Management in Durum Wheat Cultivars under Semi-Arid Conditions. Sustainability. 2021; 13(7):3725. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13073725

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kizilgeci, Ferhat, Mehmet Yildirim, Mohammad S. Islam, Disna Ratnasekera, Muhammad A. Iqbal, and Ayman E. Sabagh. 2021. "Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Chlorophyll Content for Precision Nitrogen Management in Durum Wheat Cultivars under Semi-Arid Conditions" Sustainability 13, no. 7: 3725. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13073725

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