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Review

The Potential of Locally-Sourced European Protein Sources for Organic Monogastric Production: A Review of Forage Crop Extracts, Seaweed, Starfish, Mussel, and Insects

1
Department of Animal Science, Aarhus University, DK-8830 Tjele, Denmark
2
Centre for Circular Bioeconomy, Aarhus University, DK-8830 Tjele, Denmark
3
International Centre for Research in Organic Food Systems, DK-8830 Tjele, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Domenico Ronga
Sustainability 2021, 13(4), 2303; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13042303
Received: 18 January 2021 / Revised: 11 February 2021 / Accepted: 16 February 2021 / Published: 20 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Collection Sustainable Livestock Production)
Organic monogastric agriculture is challenged because of a limited availability of regional and organic protein-rich ingredients to fulfill the amino acid requirements. The development of novel feed ingredients is therefore essential. The use of starfish (Asterias rubens), mussel (Mytilus edilus), insect, green and brown seaweed, and forage crop extracts exhibits different approaches to increase protein availability in a sustainable manner through improving the protein quality of existing ingredients, better use of under- or unutilized material, or development of circular bioeconomy. This review assessed limitations and opportunities of producing, processing, and using these novel ingredients in feed. The use of non-renewable resources and the effect on the environment of production and processing the feed ingredients are described. Protein concentration and amino acid quality of the feed ingredients are evaluated to understand their substitution potential compared with protein-rich soya bean and fishmeal. Feedstuffs’ effect on digestibility and animal performance is summarized. With the exception of seaweed, all novel ingredients show potential to partly substitute fishmeal or soya bean fulfilling part of the protein requirement in organic monogastric production. However, improvements during production and processing can be made to enhance protein quality, sustainability of the novel ingredients, and nutrient utilization of novel feed ingredients. View Full-Text
Keywords: novel feed ingredient; sustainability; pig; poultry; protein; amino acid; digestibility; growth performance novel feed ingredient; sustainability; pig; poultry; protein; amino acid; digestibility; growth performance
MDPI and ACS Style

van der Heide, M.E.; Stødkilde, L.; Værum Nørgaard, J.; Studnitz, M. The Potential of Locally-Sourced European Protein Sources for Organic Monogastric Production: A Review of Forage Crop Extracts, Seaweed, Starfish, Mussel, and Insects. Sustainability 2021, 13, 2303. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13042303

AMA Style

van der Heide ME, Stødkilde L, Værum Nørgaard J, Studnitz M. The Potential of Locally-Sourced European Protein Sources for Organic Monogastric Production: A Review of Forage Crop Extracts, Seaweed, Starfish, Mussel, and Insects. Sustainability. 2021; 13(4):2303. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13042303

Chicago/Turabian Style

van der Heide, Marleen E., Lene Stødkilde, Jan Værum Nørgaard, and Merete Studnitz. 2021. "The Potential of Locally-Sourced European Protein Sources for Organic Monogastric Production: A Review of Forage Crop Extracts, Seaweed, Starfish, Mussel, and Insects" Sustainability 13, no. 4: 2303. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13042303

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