Up-To-Date Challenges for the Conservation, Rehabilitation and Energy Retrofitting of Higher Education Cultural Heritage Buildings
2. The Importance of Multidisciplinary Methodologies Converted into Virtual Libraries
- Characterization and planning of the monitoring of the energy systems performance, activities and occupancy, including: (i) 3D laser scanning of the building and HBIM; (ii) planning in situ measurements to characterize the thermophysical properties of the building envelope and design energy retrofit solutions (U-value and hygrothermal monitoring), as suggested in various reports of European projects (see refs. [25,26]) or field studies (see ref. ); (iii) market survey/invitation to participation of companies/manufacturers of construction materials and solutions;
- In situ monitoring of energy consumption and IEQ, e.g., indoor air quality (IAQ) parameters, thermal comfort (assessed objectively and subjectively), lighting sampling and in situ monitoring/testing of energy retrofit solutions;
- Detailed digital models of the building and its surroundings via BIM; dynamic simulation modeling of the energy in HBs; hygrothermal simulation modeling, and validation of the models (with the surveyed monitored data); complementary, lighting simulation tools shall also be used;
- Performance analysis of IEQ, energy and hygrothermal parameters;
- Report of conscious and informed intervention strategies, followed by the implementation of a digital library of the building with virtual models.
3. The Importance of In Situ Characterization and Planning
- Analysis and characterization of the building stock, systems and contents—Here, the whole building should be characterized. This includes information on the building construction and materials, interior spaces’ arrangement and function, energy consumption of different systems (air-conditioning, ventilation, lighting and other equipment) and current occupancy in every space. Additionally, construction conservation and indoor environment preservation requirements are identified. This information is used to plan both the building survey and the indoor environmental campaign.
- Interviews with stakeholders—Interviews with the different stakeholders and decision makers can be carried out to assess the expectations of the users and owners of the building. The reported information can also be used in the monitoring campaigns and in the definition of multidisciplinary intervention methodologies.
- Building and urban integration survey—A survey of the constructive elements should be performed, including a technical characterization based on existing documents, bibliography, interviews, figure recording and in situ inspection (including pathologies and thermal bridges, e.g., thermography imaging). These data are required to accurately model and analyze the building’s energy performance and will also identify the best strategies for improving it. This step includes 3D laser scanning and initial HBIM modeling.
- Planning energy consumption and IEQ monitoring—This includes the survey of construction typology, type of space activity, number of people and periods of occupancy, energy consumption of systems and operation scheduling, type of HVAC system, etc. This information can be complemented with analysis of energy bills and equipment technical sheets. These data are required to accurately model and analyze the energy performance of the building.
- Planning in situ measurements—Mainly, this step includes the measurement of the U-value of some building envelope elements with non-destructive tests (e.g., the Simple Hot Box—Heat Flow Meter Method (SHB-HFM), based on the procedure described in standard ISO 9869) , and hygrothermal monitoring.
4. The Importance of In Situ Building Monitoring
5. The Importance of Building Simulation
6. Assessment of the Thermal and Energy Performance of the Building
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
List of Nomenclature
|ASHRAE||American Society of Heating: Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers|
|HBIM||Historic Building Information Modeling|
|IAQ||Indoor Air Quality|
|IEQ||Indoor Environmental Quality|
|LOD||Low Level of Development|
|SHN-HFM||Simple Hot Box—Heat Flow Meter Method|
|U-value||Thermal transmittance (W/m2K)|
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Dias Pereira, L.; Tavares, V.; Soares, N. Up-To-Date Challenges for the Conservation, Rehabilitation and Energy Retrofitting of Higher Education Cultural Heritage Buildings. Sustainability 2021, 13, 2061. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13042061
Dias Pereira L, Tavares V, Soares N. Up-To-Date Challenges for the Conservation, Rehabilitation and Energy Retrofitting of Higher Education Cultural Heritage Buildings. Sustainability. 2021; 13(4):2061. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13042061Chicago/Turabian Style
Dias Pereira, Luisa, Vanessa Tavares, and Nelson Soares. 2021. "Up-To-Date Challenges for the Conservation, Rehabilitation and Energy Retrofitting of Higher Education Cultural Heritage Buildings" Sustainability 13, no. 4: 2061. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13042061