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Review

Hospital Effluents and Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Source of Oxytetracycline and Antimicrobial-Resistant Bacteria in Seafood

1
School of Food Science and Environmental Health, College of Sciences and Health, Technological University Dublin, D07 ADY7 Dublin, Ireland
2
Radiation and Environmental Science Centre, FOCAS Research Institute, D08 NF82 Dublin, Ireland
3
Nanolab, FOCAS Research Institute, D08 NF82 Dublin, Ireland
4
College of Engineering and Building Engineering, Technological University Dublin, D01 YH30 7 Dublin, Ireland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Simona Gabriela Bungau and Lotfi Aleya
Sustainability 2021, 13(24), 13967; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132413967
Received: 9 October 2021 / Revised: 26 November 2021 / Accepted: 12 December 2021 / Published: 17 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Public Health, Pharmacy and Environment)
The present study employs a data review on the presence and aggregation of oxytetracycline (OTC) and resistance (AMR) bacteria in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and the distribution of the contaminated effluent with the aid of shallow and deep ocean currents. The study aims to determine the fate of OTC and AMR bacteria in seafood, and demonstrate a relationship between AMR levels and human health. This review includes (1) OTC, (2) AMR bacteria, (3) heavy metals in aquatic environments, and their relationship. Few publications describe OCT in surface waters. Although OTC and other tetracyclines were found in 10 countries in relatively low concentrations, the continuous water mass movement poses a contamination risk for mariculture and aquaculture. There are 10 locations showing AMR bacteria in treated and untreated hospital effluent. Special effort was made to define the geography distribution of OTC, AMR bacteria, and heavy metals detected in WWTPs to show the likely dissemination in an aquatic environment. The presence of OTC in surface waters in Asia, USA, and Europe can potentially impact seafood globally with the aid of ocean currents. Moreover, low concentrations of heavy metals exert environmental pressure and contribute to AMR dissemination. Recommended solutions are (1) quantitative analysis of OTC, heavy metals, and AMR bacteria to define their main sources; (2) employing effective technologies in urban and industrial wastewater treatment; and (3) selecting appropriate modelling from Global Ocean Observing System to predict the OTC, heavy metals, and AMR bacteria distribution. View Full-Text
Keywords: AMR bacteria; E. coli; metals; oxytetracycline; wastewater; seafood; human health AMR bacteria; E. coli; metals; oxytetracycline; wastewater; seafood; human health
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MDPI and ACS Style

McCarthy, B.; Apori, S.O.; Giltrap, M.; Bhat, A.; Curtin, J.; Tian, F. Hospital Effluents and Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Source of Oxytetracycline and Antimicrobial-Resistant Bacteria in Seafood. Sustainability 2021, 13, 13967. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132413967

AMA Style

McCarthy B, Apori SO, Giltrap M, Bhat A, Curtin J, Tian F. Hospital Effluents and Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Source of Oxytetracycline and Antimicrobial-Resistant Bacteria in Seafood. Sustainability. 2021; 13(24):13967. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132413967

Chicago/Turabian Style

McCarthy, Bozena, Samuel Obeng Apori, Michelle Giltrap, Abhijnan Bhat, James Curtin, and Furong Tian. 2021. "Hospital Effluents and Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Source of Oxytetracycline and Antimicrobial-Resistant Bacteria in Seafood" Sustainability 13, no. 24: 13967. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132413967

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