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Article

Application of Entrepreneurial Intention Model in Comparative International Entrepreneurship Research: A Cross-Cultural Study of India and Saudi Arabia

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Department of Business Administration, College of Business, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah 21955, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Information Systems, College of Computer Science, King Khalid University, Abha 62529, Saudi Arabia
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Faculty of Management, Birla Institute of Technology, Noida 201301, India
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Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Khalid University, Abha 62529, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Khalid University, Abha 62529, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Fernando Almeida
Sustainability 2021, 13(23), 13369; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132313369
Received: 20 October 2021 / Revised: 28 November 2021 / Accepted: 30 November 2021 / Published: 2 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Perspective on International Entrepreneurship)
The development of entrepreneurial activities helps in realization of multiple goals of sustainable development. This study aims to inspect the applicability of the entrepreneurial intention model (EIM) to explain entrepreneurial intention in different cultural contexts. A survey was conducted using the Entrepreneurial Intention Questionnaire. Based on 535 valid responses received from business students in India (N = 285) and Saudi Arabia (N = 250), the model was analyzed using the partial least square regression method. The results show that the EIM is validated for the combined sample (R2combined = 0.522) as well as for the individual samples (R2India = 0.644; R2Saudi = 0.412). Demographic variables and human capital variables were found to impact the entrepreneurial intention differently in the combined sample and the individual samples of the two countries. Multigroup analysis was performed to test if the country variable influences the hypothesized paths in the model. The results of the multigroup analysis show that many of the hypothesized relationships (gender-personal attitude; gender-subjective norm; gender-perceived behavioral control, role model-subjective norm, role model-perceived behavioral control, subjective norm-personal attitude, and subjective norm-entrepreneurial intention) are significantly different in the two countries. This study addresses the gap in comparative international entrepreneurship (CIE) research by testing the applicability of EIM in two different cultures. The findings are also significant for policymakers at both national and international levels for facilitating entrepreneurship. View Full-Text
Keywords: entrepreneurial intention; Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB); Entrepreneurial Intention Model (EIM); entrepreneurial intention questionnaire; comparative international entrepreneurship (CIE) entrepreneurial intention; Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB); Entrepreneurial Intention Model (EIM); entrepreneurial intention questionnaire; comparative international entrepreneurship (CIE)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hoda, N.; Ahmad, N.; Gupta, S.L.; Alam, M.M.; Ahmad, I. Application of Entrepreneurial Intention Model in Comparative International Entrepreneurship Research: A Cross-Cultural Study of India and Saudi Arabia. Sustainability 2021, 13, 13369. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132313369

AMA Style

Hoda N, Ahmad N, Gupta SL, Alam MM, Ahmad I. Application of Entrepreneurial Intention Model in Comparative International Entrepreneurship Research: A Cross-Cultural Study of India and Saudi Arabia. Sustainability. 2021; 13(23):13369. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132313369

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hoda, Najmul, Naim Ahmad, Shankar Lal Gupta, Mohammad Mahtab Alam, and Irfan Ahmad. 2021. "Application of Entrepreneurial Intention Model in Comparative International Entrepreneurship Research: A Cross-Cultural Study of India and Saudi Arabia" Sustainability 13, no. 23: 13369. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132313369

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