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Article

Gender Differences in the Comorbidity of ADHD Symptoms and Specific Learning Disorders in a Population-Based Sample

1
Educational Psychology, Helmut-Schmidt-University Hamburg, 22043 Hamburg, Germany
2
Center for Research on Individual Development and Adaptive Education of Children at Risk (IDeA), 60323 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
3
Department of Education and Human Development, DIPF|Leibniz Institute for Research and Information in Education, 60323 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
4
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität Dresden, 01307 Dresden, Germany
5
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatic and Psychotherapy, Ludwig-Maximilian-University Munich, 80336 Munich, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors share first authorship.
Academic Editors: Hanna Christiansen, Malte Schwinger and Jesús-Nicasio García-Sánchez
Sustainability 2021, 13(15), 8440; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13158440
Received: 21 May 2021 / Revised: 14 July 2021 / Accepted: 21 July 2021 / Published: 28 July 2021
Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often exhibit comorbid specific learning disorders. In clinical samples, comorbidity in girls with ADHD tends to be more common than in boys with ADHD. However, this is not the case in studies of random samples. In this paper gender differences in the comorbidity of ADHD symptoms and learning disorders in reading, spelling and math are explored in a population-based sample of 2605 3rd and 4th graders (1304 girls) without symptoms of ADHD and 415 (141 girls) with symptoms of ADHD. Girls with ADHD symptoms had higher ratios of comorbid math disorders than boys with ADHD symptoms, but not with reading or spelling disorders. Math achievement was predicted by gender and by symptoms of inattention. Girls with ADHD symptoms and math disorders received the same amount of additional support from teachers or therapists as boys with ADHD symptoms and math disorders. Our results highlight the importance of exploring the increased comorbidity of specific learning disorders in children with ADHD symptoms and especially with math disorders in girls with ADHD symptoms. Implications for providing suitable interventions and preventing the accumulation of academic problems are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: ADHD; specific learning disorders; reading disorders; spelling disorders; math disorders; dyslexia; dyscalculia; sex differences; teacher support; academic achievement ADHD; specific learning disorders; reading disorders; spelling disorders; math disorders; dyslexia; dyscalculia; sex differences; teacher support; academic achievement
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    Link: https://osf.io/bw5cm/
    Description: The data presented in this study and the syntax for the analysis are openly available at the Open Science Framework at https://osf.io/bw5cm/.
MDPI and ACS Style

Kerner auch Koerner, J.; Visser, L.; Rothe, J.; Schulte-Körne, G.; Hasselhorn, M. Gender Differences in the Comorbidity of ADHD Symptoms and Specific Learning Disorders in a Population-Based Sample. Sustainability 2021, 13, 8440. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13158440

AMA Style

Kerner auch Koerner J, Visser L, Rothe J, Schulte-Körne G, Hasselhorn M. Gender Differences in the Comorbidity of ADHD Symptoms and Specific Learning Disorders in a Population-Based Sample. Sustainability. 2021; 13(15):8440. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13158440

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kerner auch Koerner, Julia, Linda Visser, Josefine Rothe, Gerd Schulte-Körne, and Marcus Hasselhorn. 2021. "Gender Differences in the Comorbidity of ADHD Symptoms and Specific Learning Disorders in a Population-Based Sample" Sustainability 13, no. 15: 8440. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13158440

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