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Review

An Evidence Review of Ageing, Long-Term Care Provision and Funding Mechanisms in Turkey: Using Existing Evidence to Estimate Long-Term Care Cost

1
Oxford Institute for Population Ageing, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6PR, UK
2
Analytical Research Ltd., Surrey GU24 0ER, UK
3
Department of Health Services Research and Policy, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1H 9SH, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giuseppe Battaglia
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 6306; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13116306
Received: 28 April 2021 / Revised: 23 May 2021 / Accepted: 31 May 2021 / Published: 2 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Care: Facing Global Ageing More Effectively)
Turkey is transitioning from an ageing to aged population at a fast pace. This process requires immediate policy and practice planning and actionable strategies. Formulating and implementing such policies needs to acknowledge parallel demographic and socio-economic changes to ensure adequate resources and appropriate services are developed to enhance the growing older population’s quality of life and wellbeing. Limited long-term care (LTC) provision, funding mechanisms and reliance on informal support primarily provided by women pose considerable challenges to all stakeholders, including the state, families and older people. This paper provides an evidence review on older people's status and their health and care needs, current LTC policies, provision and funding mechanisms in Turkey. It employs a mixed review methodology, making use of published statistics, indicators and literature. The study also adapts existing LTC funding estimation models to predict LTC cost for Turkey. The review highlights the increasing share of older people in Turkey, the fast pace of population ageing, and escalating health and LTC unmet needs. Older people are reported to have high levels of depression, loneliness and co-morbidity with regional, gender and educational differentials. The Turkish LTC and welfare models rely on the family, particularly women, in meeting increased demand. A hierarchical model with random intercept was implemented and estimated the LTC cost in Turkey to be 0.02% of GDP, acknowledging the high proportion of people at labour participation age range and low female employment levels. View Full-Text
Keywords: older people; ageing; Middle East; welfare model; social services; caregivers; health needs; LTC spending models; LTC cost older people; ageing; Middle East; welfare model; social services; caregivers; health needs; LTC spending models; LTC cost
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ismail, M.; Hussein, S. An Evidence Review of Ageing, Long-Term Care Provision and Funding Mechanisms in Turkey: Using Existing Evidence to Estimate Long-Term Care Cost. Sustainability 2021, 13, 6306. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13116306

AMA Style

Ismail M, Hussein S. An Evidence Review of Ageing, Long-Term Care Provision and Funding Mechanisms in Turkey: Using Existing Evidence to Estimate Long-Term Care Cost. Sustainability. 2021; 13(11):6306. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13116306

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ismail, Mohamed, and Shereen Hussein. 2021. "An Evidence Review of Ageing, Long-Term Care Provision and Funding Mechanisms in Turkey: Using Existing Evidence to Estimate Long-Term Care Cost" Sustainability 13, no. 11: 6306. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13116306

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