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Article

Environmental Performance of Chocolate Produced in Ghana Using Life Cycle Assessment

Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences, Università Politecnica delle Marche, 60131 Ancona, Italy
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Eugenio Cavallo, Niccolò Pampuro and Marcella Biddoccu
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 6155; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13116155
Received: 29 April 2021 / Revised: 21 May 2021 / Accepted: 25 May 2021 / Published: 30 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Engineering for Sustainable Agriculture)
Ghana is an important cocoa producer and exporter and this production is of high economic importance. Increasing interest in the sustainable productions of cocoa/chocolate necessitated the need to assess the environmental impacts associated with the production of different chocolate variants (extra dark (EDC), dark (DC), milk (MC) and flavoured milk (FMC) in Ghana, including the identification of environmental hotspots for improvement. The life cycle assessment tool was used following the CML_IA and CED impact assessment methods. EDC had the lowest scores for most of the impact categories while FMC was most impactful. For Global Warming Potential (GWP), EDC and FMC were estimated to be 1.61 kg CO2 eq. and 4.21 kg CO2 eq., respectively. CED ranged from 1.44 × 102 to 1.50 × 102 MJ-eq. Chocolate manufacturing phase was generally more impactful than cocoa cultivation due to high emissions from milk and sugar production. The impact scores for 100 g packaged chocolate bar were the lowest in comparison to 300 g chocolate pouches and 12.5 g packaged chocolate strips. GWP for 100 g and 12.5 g were 0.20 kg CO2 eq. and 0.39 kg CO2 eq., respectively. Comparing different destination points for the manufactured chocolate, impact scores for the international destination were similar to those recorded for local destinations. Improvement options are suggested for all phases to ensure more sustainable chocolate production and distribution. View Full-Text
Keywords: sustainability; cocoa; environmental impacts; emissions; processing; packaging sustainability; cocoa; environmental impacts; emissions; processing; packaging
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MDPI and ACS Style

Boakye-Yiadom, K.A.; Duca, D.; Foppa Pedretti, E.; Ilari, A. Environmental Performance of Chocolate Produced in Ghana Using Life Cycle Assessment. Sustainability 2021, 13, 6155. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13116155

AMA Style

Boakye-Yiadom KA, Duca D, Foppa Pedretti E, Ilari A. Environmental Performance of Chocolate Produced in Ghana Using Life Cycle Assessment. Sustainability. 2021; 13(11):6155. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13116155

Chicago/Turabian Style

Boakye-Yiadom, Kofi A., Daniele Duca, Ester Foppa Pedretti, and Alessio Ilari. 2021. "Environmental Performance of Chocolate Produced in Ghana Using Life Cycle Assessment" Sustainability 13, no. 11: 6155. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13116155

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