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Chemical Characterisation of Construction and Demolition Waste in Skopje City and Its Surroundings (Republic of Macedonia)

1
Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, University of Ferrara, Ferrara 44122, Italy
2
GAYA-CER Non Governmental Organization, Skopje 1000, Republic of Macedonia
3
Department of Earth Sciences, University of Florence, Florence 50121, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(5), 2055; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12052055
Received: 11 February 2020 / Revised: 2 March 2020 / Accepted: 6 March 2020 / Published: 7 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Management of Waste Materials in Construction)
In the Republic of Macedonia, construction and demolition (C&D) waste is often dumped, underestimating the potential recycling and re-use as raw materials for civil engineering works and/or cement/ceramic industries. SAMCODE (Sustainable Approach to Managing Construction and Demolition Waste) is a know-how exchange program, the focus of which is chemical characterisation in terms of major and trace elements in order to evaluate the possible Macedonian C&D waste recycling. Thirty-nine C&D waste samples were collected from different dumps in Skopje and surroundings. X-ray fluorescence analyses, carried out on powdered samples, show i) highly variable concentrations, indicative of the heterogenous nature of C&D waste, and ii) high concentration in Cr, Ni, and Zn with respect to Italian, Chinese, and Dutch tolerance limits, probably due to the presence of these elements in ophiolitic rocks and sulphide-bearing deposits, used as raw material in building activity. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analyses of leachates, performed to assess the mobility of heavy metals, show significant concentrations of Cr, and to a lesser extent, Ni. Results suggest that homogenisation processes of the recycled materials should be implemented and preliminary screening of C&D waste should be performed to eliminate heavy metals-bearing components. View Full-Text
Keywords: C&D waste; Republic of Macedonia; chemical characterisation; recycling; heavy metals; tolerance limit C&D waste; Republic of Macedonia; chemical characterisation; recycling; heavy metals; tolerance limit
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bianchini, G.; Ristovski, I.; Milcov, I.; Zupac, A.; Natali, C.; Salani, G.M.; Marchina, C.; Brombin, V.; Ferraboschi, A. Chemical Characterisation of Construction and Demolition Waste in Skopje City and Its Surroundings (Republic of Macedonia). Sustainability 2020, 12, 2055. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12052055

AMA Style

Bianchini G, Ristovski I, Milcov I, Zupac A, Natali C, Salani GM, Marchina C, Brombin V, Ferraboschi A. Chemical Characterisation of Construction and Demolition Waste in Skopje City and Its Surroundings (Republic of Macedonia). Sustainability. 2020; 12(5):2055. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12052055

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bianchini, Gianluca, Igor Ristovski, Igor Milcov, Alojz Zupac, Claudio Natali, Gian M. Salani, Chiara Marchina, Valentina Brombin, and Andrea Ferraboschi. 2020. "Chemical Characterisation of Construction and Demolition Waste in Skopje City and Its Surroundings (Republic of Macedonia)" Sustainability 12, no. 5: 2055. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12052055

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