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Article

Trace Elements in Soils of a Typical Industrial District in Ningxia, Northwest China: Pollution, Source, and Risk Evaluation

1
Key Laboratory of Eco-environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region (Ministry of Education), Chongqing Key Laboratory of Plant Ecology and Resources Research in Three Gorges Reservoir Region, School of Life Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China
2
Faculty of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062, China
3
Breeding Base for State Key Laboratory of Land Degradation and Ecological Restoration of North-western China, Key Lab for Restoration and Reconstruction of Degraded Ecosystem in North-western China (Ministry of Education), Ningxia University, Yinchuan 750000, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(5), 1868; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12051868
Received: 11 February 2020 / Revised: 27 February 2020 / Accepted: 28 February 2020 / Published: 2 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Management of Heavy Metals)
Intense industrial activities could result in massive accumulations of trace elements in the soil and risk the terrestrial ecosystems and human health. A total of 119 topsoil samples from a typical industrial area, Huinong District, Ningxia, Northwest China, were collected, and the contents of six trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn) were determined. The results indicated that the mean concentrations of Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were lower than the national standard values of class II, while As and Cd were 2.77 and 3.92 times the corresponding threshold values. Multivariate analyses revealed six metals can be categorized into three principal components (PC). PC1 was As, Cd, and Pb, which originated from anthropogenic inputs. PC2 consisted of Cr and Cu, which originated from the natural geological background. PC3 only included Zn and was mainly due to agricultural impacts. The spatial distribution of six metals greatly varied from local anthropic inputs. For As and Cd, the most heavily polluted area was located in the north and southwest parts of the study area, whereas most Zn was enriched in the southern part, which was mainly agricultural land. The topsoil in this area displayed a moderate environmental risk with the metal pollution order of Cd > As > Zn ≈ Cr ≈ Pb ≈ Cu. Moreover, the contents of trace elements in the industrial land and water were relatively higher than those in other land-use types, indicating a considerable risk of metal migration and accumulation to rivers and the groundwater. It is suggested that effective remediation measures for Cd and As, in particular, should be properly employed for the sustainable development of the soil and groundwater, while reducing the risk of elements to the local residents in Huinong District. View Full-Text
Keywords: trace element; soil pollution; industrial area; spatial distribution; potential ecological risk; multivariate analysis; source trace element; soil pollution; industrial area; spatial distribution; potential ecological risk; multivariate analysis; source
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, S.; Liu, Y.; Yang, Y.; Ni, X.; Arif, M.; Charles, W.; Li, C. Trace Elements in Soils of a Typical Industrial District in Ningxia, Northwest China: Pollution, Source, and Risk Evaluation. Sustainability 2020, 12, 1868. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12051868

AMA Style

Zhang S, Liu Y, Yang Y, Ni X, Arif M, Charles W, Li C. Trace Elements in Soils of a Typical Industrial District in Ningxia, Northwest China: Pollution, Source, and Risk Evaluation. Sustainability. 2020; 12(5):1868. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12051868

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Songlin, Yuan Liu, Yujing Yang, Xilu Ni, Muhammad Arif, Wokadala Charles, and Changxiao Li. 2020. "Trace Elements in Soils of a Typical Industrial District in Ningxia, Northwest China: Pollution, Source, and Risk Evaluation" Sustainability 12, no. 5: 1868. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12051868

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