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Open AccessArticle

Community Acceptance of Wind Energy Developments: Experience from Wind Energy Scarce Regions in Europe

1
CICERO Center for International Climate Research, 0349 Oslo, Norway
2
Environmental Policy Research Centre, Freie Universität Berlin, D-14195 Berlin, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(5), 1754; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12051754
Received: 3 February 2020 / Revised: 22 February 2020 / Accepted: 24 February 2020 / Published: 26 February 2020
Renewable energy plays an important role in the transition to a low emission society, yet in many regions energy projects have resulted in increasing societal polarization. Based on a comprehensive literature review and a survey among stakeholders from specific regions in Germany, Italy, Latvia, Norway, Poland and Spain with little prior experience with wind energy, we highlight six categories of factors that shape community acceptance of onshore wind energy development: technical characteristics of wind energy projects, environmental impacts, economic impacts, societal impacts, contextual factors and individual characteristics. We identify key similarities in acceptance-related patterns of wind energy development across the selected regions, but also important differences, highlighting the very context-specific nature of community acceptance. The findings contribute to improving the understanding of the forces, factors and relationships at play between policy frameworks and perceptions of wind energy under different conditions. We conclude by proposing policy recommendations regarding measures to increase the positive impacts and reduce the negative impacts of wind energy projects, and to strengthen existing drivers and reduce barriers to community acceptance of wind energy development. View Full-Text
Keywords: wind energy; social acceptance; community acceptance; stakeholder consultation; barriers; drivers; climate; environment; economy; society wind energy; social acceptance; community acceptance; stakeholder consultation; barriers; drivers; climate; environment; economy; society
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MDPI and ACS Style

Leiren, M.D.; Aakre, S.; Linnerud, K.; Julsrud, T.E.; Di Nucci, M.-R.; Krug, M. Community Acceptance of Wind Energy Developments: Experience from Wind Energy Scarce Regions in Europe. Sustainability 2020, 12, 1754. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12051754

AMA Style

Leiren MD, Aakre S, Linnerud K, Julsrud TE, Di Nucci M-R, Krug M. Community Acceptance of Wind Energy Developments: Experience from Wind Energy Scarce Regions in Europe. Sustainability. 2020; 12(5):1754. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12051754

Chicago/Turabian Style

Leiren, Merethe D.; Aakre, Stine; Linnerud, Kristin; Julsrud, Tom E.; Di Nucci, Maria-Rosaria; Krug, Michael. 2020. "Community Acceptance of Wind Energy Developments: Experience from Wind Energy Scarce Regions in Europe" Sustainability 12, no. 5: 1754. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12051754

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