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Increasing Efficiency of Field Water Re-Injection during Water-Flooding in Mature Hydrocarbon Reservoirs: A Case Study from the Sava Depression, Northern Croatia

1
Faculty of Mining, Geology and Petroleum Engineering, University of Zagreb, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
2
INA-Plc., HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
3
Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 786; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12030786
Received: 25 December 2019 / Revised: 11 January 2020 / Accepted: 19 January 2020 / Published: 21 January 2020
The authors analyse the process of water re-injection in the hydrocarbon reservoirs/fields in the Upper Miocene sandstone reservoirs, located in the western part of the Sava Depression (Croatia). Namely, this is the “A” field with “L” reservoir that currently produces hydrocarbons using a secondary recovery method, i.e., water injection (in fact, re-injection of the field waters). Three regional reservoir variables were analysed: Porosity, permeability and injected water volumes. The quantity of data was small for porosity reservoir “L” and included 25 points; for permeability and injected volumes of water, 10 points each were measured. This study defined selection of mapping algorithms among methods designed for small datasets (fewer than 20 points). Namely, those are inverse distance weighting and nearest and natural neighbourhood. Results were tested using cross-validation and isoline shape recognition, and the inverse distance weighting method is described as the most appropriate approach for mapping permeability and injected volumes in reservoir “L”. Obtained maps made possible the application of the modified geological probability calculation as a tool for prediction of success for future injection (with probability of 0.56). Consequently, it was possible to plan future injection more efficiently, with smaller injected volumes and higher hydrocarbon recovery. Prevention of useless injection, decreasing number of injection wells, saving energy and funds invested in such processes lead to lower environmental impact during the hydrocarbon production. View Full-Text
Keywords: water injection; efficiency; sandstones; Neogene; Croatia water injection; efficiency; sandstones; Neogene; Croatia
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Malvić, T.; Ivšinović, J.; Velić, J.; Sremac, J.; Barudžija, U. Increasing Efficiency of Field Water Re-Injection during Water-Flooding in Mature Hydrocarbon Reservoirs: A Case Study from the Sava Depression, Northern Croatia. Sustainability 2020, 12, 786.

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