Questioning Low-Carbon Transition Governance: A Comparative Analysis of European Case Studies
- What are the implemented actions in terms of energy production and efficiency measures?
- What are the legal framework and the origin of the funding within which the experiences develop?
- What are the number and type of the involved actors and what partnerships link them?
2. Setting the Context
3. Materials and Methods
4. Introduction to the Case Studies
5. Results and Discussion
5.1. Energy Production and Energy Efficiency Measures
5.2. Legal Framework and Funding Sources
5.3. Involved Actors and Partnerships
6. Concluding Remarks and Future Research Perspectives
Conflicts of Interest
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|Case Study’s Name||Timeframe||Main Objectives||Acronym|
|Sustainable Järva district regeneration|
|2007–2014||Reaching the targets of the city to become fossil free by 2050. The main aim for Järva district is to become a model of sustainability, promoting environmental responsibility and energy efficiency while still preserving its cultural and historical values||SE|
|1997–2007||Achieving “energy independence” in the island thanks to the combination of renewable energy production and energy efficiency measures||DK|
|Baywind energy community|
|from 1996||Living within a fair share of the earth’s resources||UK|
(Culemborg, The Netherlands)
|1994–2009||Promoting a sustainable and environmental-friendly development by being an example of integrated approach towards sustainable planning||NL|
|Bio Energy Village|
|From 2006||Substituting all fossil fuels for electricity and heat production with biomass||DE|
|2005–2010||Constructing a new “green district” in the city center targeting exemplary construction in terms of energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy. It is part of an ambitious city-center urban regeneration project in Confluence||FR|
|Urban Traffic Programme/Stadtverkehr 2025|
|2012–2025||Increasing 10% in public transport, pedestrian and bicycle traffic in overall traffic until 2025||CH|
|from 1997||Facing an environmental issue of the village related to a poorly managed refuse dump, collecting waste from five municipalities||IT|
|From 1999||Gaining resilience and autonomy in energy supply to become a sustainable island substituting fossil fuel-based by renewable energy sources||ES1|
|Urban Mobility Plan with Superblocks|
(Vitoria Gasteiz, Spain)
|2010–2023||Providing a holistic solution to urban planning needs, traffic planning and other citizens’ needs and deals with issues relating to the availability and quality of transport, emissions and quality of air, the use of public space, noise pollution and energy consumptions||ES2|
|Case Study||Local Energy Production||Energy Saving||Legal Framework||Origin of the Funding||Actors Involved||Contracts|
|SE (Stockholm, Sweden)||Solar photovoltaic||Renovation of existing buildings, slow mobilities, shared mobility, behavior program.||Local energy transition policy, national and regional legislation||Citizens’ investment, municipal authority’s funding, local energy operator, real estate company investments.||1 public housing, 1 local authority, police authority, several businesses and associations, citizens.||Public-public partnership|
|Wind, solar thermal/photovoltaic, biomass||Renovation of 200 existing houses, sensing processes and open meetings||National legislation, local energy transition policy||National, regional, municipal, citizens investments||1 local authority, 1 farmer union, 450 citizens, 1 grassroots organization||Residents’ agreement|
|Wind turbines/wind power station||None||National legislation||Citizens investments||1 national authority, 1 cooperative, citizens.||Private-private partnership|
(Culemborg, The Netherlands)
|Power and heat generation from waste and sewage, small wind turbines||Closed water circuit, water management system, organic food production||Local urban development plan, national legislation||Municipal, foundation investments||1 national authority, 1 local authority, 1 foundation, professionals; future inhabitants||Residents’ agreement|
|Bioenergy plant running on biogas and woodchip to supply heat and power to the village||District heating network||National legislation||National, citizens investments||1 local authority, 1 cooperative association, 1 university||Private-private partnership|
|Solar thermal/photovoltaic, wood fuel boiler at block scale, heat pumps and gas boiler||Construction of new buildings characterized by passive solar design, envelop insulation, heat recovery and cross ventilation, light bulbs, occupancy sensors||Local urban development plan, national legislation, European project.||European||1 European authority, 1 local authority, 1 local public company, 1 not for profit organization, 1 local agency, 1 energy company, 3 real estate developers, 1 research center.||Public-private partnership|
|None||Public transport, pedestrian/cycle paths, educational behavior program, incentives to electric cars/bikes||Local urban traffic policy||Municipal||1 Canton, 1 national authority, 1 local authority, transport enterprises, 1 university, 1 car group representing the interest of car owners, 1 bike group, 1 business community, shopkeepers, municipalities, associations.||No formal partnership|
|Cogeneration plant for energy production from biogas, solar photovoltaic and wind.||Extension of the landfill of waste disposal and the construction of the mechanical-biological treatment plant.||National legislation||Municipal, citizens’ investments.||1 local authority, 1 public company, citizens, 1 foundation.||Agreement among the involved actors|
(El Herrio, Spain)
|Wind/hydroelectric plant, solar panel for public and private buildings||Incentives (subsidies) for enhancing resident’s mobility with electric cars, public lighting, electric plant, education program.||Local energy transition plan, local urban development plan, European program.||National, regional, citizens investments||1 European authority, 1 national authority, 1 regional authority, 1 local authority, 1 energy company; 1 national company, 1 research center||Public-private partnership|
(Vitoria Gasteiz, Spain)
|None||Car-free, pedestrian areas/cycle paths, shared mobility, construction of new buildings, renovation of existing buildings, urban heating network.||Local mobility policy||Municipal||1 local authority, 1 public agency, citizens, 1 research center.||Public-public partnership|
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Rotondo, F.; Abastante, F.; Cotella, G.; Lami, I.M. Questioning Low-Carbon Transition Governance: A Comparative Analysis of European Case Studies. Sustainability 2020, 12, 10460. https://doi.org/10.3390/su122410460
Rotondo F, Abastante F, Cotella G, Lami IM. Questioning Low-Carbon Transition Governance: A Comparative Analysis of European Case Studies. Sustainability. 2020; 12(24):10460. https://doi.org/10.3390/su122410460Chicago/Turabian Style
Rotondo, Federica, Francesca Abastante, Giancarlo Cotella, and Isabella Maria Lami. 2020. "Questioning Low-Carbon Transition Governance: A Comparative Analysis of European Case Studies" Sustainability 12, no. 24: 10460. https://doi.org/10.3390/su122410460