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Article

An Operational Framework for Urban Vulnerability to Floods in the Guayas Estuary Region: The Duran Case Study

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Facultad de Ingenieria Maritima y Ciencias del Mar, Escuela Superior Politecnica del Litoral, Campus Gustavo Galindo Km. 30.5 Vía Perimetral, Guayaquil 09-01-5863, Ecuador
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Pacific International Center for Disaster Risk Reduction, PIC-DRR, Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral, ESPOL, Campus Gustavo Galindo Km. 30.5 Vía Perimetral, Guayaquil 09-01-5863, Ecuador
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Servicio Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos y Emergencias, Samborondón 092301, Ecuador
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Facultad de Ciencias de la Tierra, Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral, ESPOL, Campus Gustavo Galindo Km 30.5 Vía Perimetral, Guayaquil 09-01-5863, Ecuador
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Centro del Agua y Desarrollo Sustentable, Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral, ESPOL, Campus Gustavo Galindo Km. 30.5 Vía Perimetral, Guayaquil 09-01-5863, Ecuador
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Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Matemáticas, Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral, ESPOL, Campus Gustavo Galindo Km. 30.5 Vía Perimetral, Guayaquil 09-01-5863, Ecuador
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Dirección de Riesgos y Ambiente, Municipio de Santa Elena, Santa Elena 240150, Ecuador
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Department of Economics and Statistics, Politecnico di Torino & Universita di Torino, 10125 Torino, Italy
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Interuniversity Department of Regional and Urban Studies and Planning (DIST), Politecnico di Torino & Universita di Torino, 10125 Torino, Italy
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(24), 10292; https://doi.org/10.3390/su122410292
Received: 31 October 2020 / Revised: 27 November 2020 / Accepted: 30 November 2020 / Published: 9 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk-Informed Sustainable Development in the Urban Tropics)
Duran is a coastal city located in the Guayas Estuary region in which 24% of urban sectors suffers from the effects of chronic flooding. This study seeks to assess the causes of Duran’s vulnerability by considering exposure, population sensitivity and adaptive capacity to establish alternatives to reduce its vulnerability to flooding. An operational framework is proposed based on the vulnerability definition of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and applying a census-based Index of Vulnerability, a geographic information system and local knowledge of urban development. A Principal Component and equal weighting analysis were applied as well as a spatial clustering to explore the spatial vulnerability across the city. A total of 34% of the city area is mapped as having high and very high vulnerability, mostly occupied by informal settlements (e.g., 288 hectares). Underlying factors were poor quality housing, lack of city services and low adaptive capacity of the community. However, some government housing programs (e.g., El Recreo), with better housing and adaptive capacity were also highly vulnerable. Limited urban planning governance has led to the overloading of storm water and drainage infrastructure which cause chronic flooding. Understanding the underlying causes of vulnerability is critical in order develop integrated strategies that increase city resilience to climate change. View Full-Text
Keywords: flooding; vulnerability; community; government; strategies flooding; vulnerability; community; government; strategies
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MDPI and ACS Style

Borbor-Cordova, M.J.; Ger, G.; Valdiviezo-Ajila, A.A.; Arias-Hidalgo, M.; Matamoros, D.; Nolivos, I.; Menoscal-Aldas, G.; Valle, F.; Pezzoli, A.; Cornejo-Rodriguez, M.d.P. An Operational Framework for Urban Vulnerability to Floods in the Guayas Estuary Region: The Duran Case Study. Sustainability 2020, 12, 10292. https://doi.org/10.3390/su122410292

AMA Style

Borbor-Cordova MJ, Ger G, Valdiviezo-Ajila AA, Arias-Hidalgo M, Matamoros D, Nolivos I, Menoscal-Aldas G, Valle F, Pezzoli A, Cornejo-Rodriguez MdP. An Operational Framework for Urban Vulnerability to Floods in the Guayas Estuary Region: The Duran Case Study. Sustainability. 2020; 12(24):10292. https://doi.org/10.3390/su122410292

Chicago/Turabian Style

Borbor-Cordova, Mercy J., Geremy Ger, Angel A. Valdiviezo-Ajila, Mijail Arias-Hidalgo, David Matamoros, Indira Nolivos, Gonzalo Menoscal-Aldas, Federica Valle, Alessandro Pezzoli, and Maria del Pilar Cornejo-Rodriguez. 2020. "An Operational Framework for Urban Vulnerability to Floods in the Guayas Estuary Region: The Duran Case Study" Sustainability 12, no. 24: 10292. https://doi.org/10.3390/su122410292

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