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Article

Drivers of Farm Households’ Perceived Risk Sources and Factors Affecting Uptake of Mitigation Strategies in Punjab Pakistan: Implications for Sustainable Agriculture

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Institute of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan
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Department of Economics, Government College University Faisalabad, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan
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School of Economics and Management, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434023, China
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Changjiang River Belt Economic and Development Research Institute, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434023, China
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Centre for Agriculture Strategy and Development (CAS-D), PMAS Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi 46000, Pakistan
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Department of Agribusiness and Applied Economics, Muhammad Nawaz Shareef University of Agriculture Multan, Multan 66000, Pakistan
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(23), 9895; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12239895
Received: 30 October 2020 / Revised: 17 November 2020 / Accepted: 24 November 2020 / Published: 26 November 2020
Climate change is a serious threat to agriculture in many developing countries including Pakistan. Changing pattern of climate and its extreme conditions have already led to a decline in crop productivity. However, farmers in developing countries experience risks beyond just climate change, many of which are related to policy, strategy, and factor endowments. The impact of these risks have serious implications for food security, rural livelihood, farm households’ wellbeing, and, above all, their motive to adapt to these changes in the long-term. To have an in-depth knowledge of farmers’ perceptions about the changing climate, this study investigates various aspects such as the determinants of perception about various risk sources and the relevant mitigation and adaptation options. To do so, 480 farmers from agriculture-dominated Punjab province were randomly selected in order for us to evaluate their awareness levels, socioeconomic dynamics that influence their perceptions, and various factors that influence their perceptions to achieve the desired findings. We applied the principle factor analysis approach to ascertain major sources and strategies based on farmers’ perception and planned/practiced options. Further, regression analysis was done to evaluate the factors influencing the perception levels of farmers about risk sources. The results showed that majority of the farmers faced various risks, and were trying to adapt crop husbandry practices towards these perceived risks. Change in agricultural policies (3.96) was placed as the highest risk source, while the need for small dams/turbine schemes was the top priority for risk management strategy (mean value of 4.39). By observing the effect of farm and farmer’s characteristics on risk sources and risk management strategies, it was revealed that these characteristics ominously provoked farmers’ perspectives about risk sources and management strategies. The findings imply the need for coherent environmental policy that encompasses price stability, community-led adaptation campaigns, and easy/uninterrupted flows of information that enables the farming community to facilitate sustainable decision processes. View Full-Text
Keywords: risk perception; coping strategies; agricultural households; climate change; uncertainty risk perception; coping strategies; agricultural households; climate change; uncertainty
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MDPI and ACS Style

Iqbal, M.A.; Abbas, A.; Naqvi, S.A.A.; Rizwan, M.; Samie, A.; Ahmed, U.I. Drivers of Farm Households’ Perceived Risk Sources and Factors Affecting Uptake of Mitigation Strategies in Punjab Pakistan: Implications for Sustainable Agriculture. Sustainability 2020, 12, 9895. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12239895

AMA Style

Iqbal MA, Abbas A, Naqvi SAA, Rizwan M, Samie A, Ahmed UI. Drivers of Farm Households’ Perceived Risk Sources and Factors Affecting Uptake of Mitigation Strategies in Punjab Pakistan: Implications for Sustainable Agriculture. Sustainability. 2020; 12(23):9895. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12239895

Chicago/Turabian Style

Iqbal, Muhammad A., Azhar Abbas, Syed A.A. Naqvi, Muhammad Rizwan, Abdus Samie, and Umar I. Ahmed. 2020. "Drivers of Farm Households’ Perceived Risk Sources and Factors Affecting Uptake of Mitigation Strategies in Punjab Pakistan: Implications for Sustainable Agriculture" Sustainability 12, no. 23: 9895. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12239895

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