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Open AccessArticle

Clays, Limestone and Biochar Affect the Bioavailability and Geochemical Fractions of Cadmium and Zinc from Zn-Smelter Polluted Soils

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College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China
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Department of Environmental Sciences, Sindh Madressatul Islam University, Karachi 74000, Pakistan
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Department of Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry, University of Agriculture in Krakow, al. Mickiewicza 21, 31-120 Krakow, Poland
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Department of Mineralogy, Petrography and Geochemistry, al. Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
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Department of Agro-Environment and Ecology, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, Agriculture University of Tirana, Tirana 1029, Albania
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Cerema, Project-Team DIM, 120 Rue de Paris, BP 216 Sourdun, 77487 Provins CEDEX, France
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Institute of Ecology and Biological Resource, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST), No. 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Caugiay, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
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Vietnam–Russia Tropical Centre, 63 Nguyen Van Huyen, Nghia Do, CauGiay, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
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Department of Economics, Abdul Haq Campus, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science & Technology, M.A. Jinnah Road, Karachi 75300, Pakistan
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(20), 8606; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12208606
Received: 27 September 2020 / Revised: 14 October 2020 / Accepted: 15 October 2020 / Published: 17 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Use Management and Soil Health)
Ca-bentonite (CB) alone and in a mixture with limestone (L), tobacco biochar (TB) and zeolite (Z) on the fixation, geochemical fractions and absorption of Cd and Zn by Chinese cabbage in smelter heavily polluted (S-HP) and smelter low polluted (S-LP) soils were investigated. The results showed that the CB + TB and CB + L + TB treatments significantly immobilized Cd up to 22.0% and 29.7%, respectively, and reduced uptake by Chinese cabbage shoot to 36.0% with CB + Z + L and 61.3% with CB + L in S-HP and S-LP soils compared with the control. The CB + Z + L + TB treatment mobilized Cd up to 4.4% and increased absorption in the shoot by 9.9% in S-HP soil. The greatest immobilization of Zn was 53.2% and 58.2% with the CB + Z + L + TB treatment, which reduced Zn uptake in the plant shoot by 10.0% with CB + L and 58.0% with CB + Z + L + TB in S-HP and S-LP soils. The CB + Z + TB and CB + TB treatments mobilized Zn up to 35.4% and 4.9%, respectively, in both soils. Furthermore, the uptake of Zn in plant shoot was observed by 59.0% and 7.9% with application of CB + Z and CB + TB treatments, respectively, in S-HP and S-LP soils. Overall, our results suggest that Ca-bentonite alone and in mixtures with different amendments can be used to reduce the phyto-extraction of Cd and Zn in Zn-smelter polluted soils. View Full-Text
Keywords: clay minerals; limestone; biochar; trace elements; bioavailability; alkaline degraded soils clay minerals; limestone; biochar; trace elements; bioavailability; alkaline degraded soils
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Lahori, A.H.; Mierzwa-Hersztek, M.; Demiraj, E.; Idir, R.; Bui, T.T.X.; Vu, D.D.; Channa, A.; Samoon, N.A.; Zhang, Z. Clays, Limestone and Biochar Affect the Bioavailability and Geochemical Fractions of Cadmium and Zinc from Zn-Smelter Polluted Soils. Sustainability 2020, 12, 8606.

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