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Resilience and Vulnerability of Public Transportation Fare Systems: The Case of the City of Rio De Janeiro, Brazil

Transportation Engineering Program, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Av. Horácio Macedo 2030, Rio de Janeiro 21941-914, Brazil
Department of Production Engineering, Federal University of Piaui, Av. Universitária, Teresina 64049-550, Brazil
Instituto de Geografia, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Av. Brasil 2241, Valparaíso 2362807, Chile
Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds, 34-40 University Road, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(2), 647;
Received: 6 December 2019 / Revised: 3 January 2020 / Accepted: 10 January 2020 / Published: 16 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Transportation)
Resilience is the ability of a system to adapt, persist, and transform as a reaction to threats, which may be external or internal to the system, while vulnerability is the state of being susceptible to harm from exposure to stresses associated with environmental and social change and from the inability to adapt. Based on a study of the threats that can affect urban mobility, we identified a gap regarding the analysis of the levels of resilience and vulnerability in the face of subsidy threats that can severely affect developing countries. This article measures the level of resilience and vulnerability due to the absence of public transport fare subsidies. For this purpose, we developed an approach based on fuzzy logic and applied it in 33 administrative regions (ARs) of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We obtained four matrices of the levels of vulnerability and resilience of each of the regions as an origin and destination. The results show that areas nearest to the downtown region and those with high-capacity transportation available (commuter train and/or subway, systems with many transfer points) are more resilient, while a high level of vulnerability is associated with low income, negative socioeconomic indicators, and the predominance of road transportation to reach jobs. The contribution of this paper is the method applied to analyse the levels of vulnerability and resilience of public transport, which includes a threat that can cause a rupture that impacts routines and job accessibility in a region. View Full-Text
Keywords: resilience; vulnerability; public transport; fuzzy logic resilience; vulnerability; public transport; fuzzy logic
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Santos, T.; Silva, M.A.; Fernandes, V.A.; Marsden, G. Resilience and Vulnerability of Public Transportation Fare Systems: The Case of the City of Rio De Janeiro, Brazil. Sustainability 2020, 12, 647.

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