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Article

Diffusion of Building Information Modeling in Building Projects and Firms in Singapore

1
Sino-Australia Joint Research Center in BIM and Smart Construction, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China
2
Department of Building, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117566, Singapore
3
School of Architecture and Built Environment, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5005, Australia
4
School of Engineering and Technology, Central Queensland University, Sydney, NSW 2000, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(18), 7762; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12187762
Received: 31 July 2020 / Revised: 17 September 2020 / Accepted: 18 September 2020 / Published: 20 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lean Design and Building Information Modelling)
Building information modeling (BIM) implementation has been mandated in building projects in Singapore, but a wider adoption is still desired. This study aims to investigate the factors influencing BIM diffusion and examine how the factors influence firms with different project roles, firm sizes, and BIM implementation experience. The results of a pilot study, a questionnaire survey with 89 professionals, and five post-survey interviews showed that hindrances related to inadequate multi-party collaboration (whether formal or informal), conservative mindset, limited skills, costly infrastructure and training, and multi-discipline model integration were the most influential, whereas drivers associated with project leadership team’s strategic consensus, multi-disciplinary design coordination, training, and government regulations were top-ranked. Subgroup analyses between pairs of firms with different characteristics revealed that while construction firms and less experienced stakeholders tended to underestimate BIM implementation difficulties, small-medium contractors might underestimate relevant benefits. The findings and managerial recommendations help different types of firms prioritize resources to overcome hindrances, seize opportunities (such as gaining a competitive edge from BIM practical experience), and obtain support from workers executing BIM daily. With major stakeholders’ recognition and implementation, BIM can be successfully diffused in building projects and firms. The Singapore government and other countries can refer to this study when further issuing BIM diffusion policies. View Full-Text
Keywords: building project; building information modeling; diffusion; stakeholder; firm size; experience building project; building information modeling; diffusion; stakeholder; firm size; experience
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liao, L.; Teo, E.A.L.; Chang, R.; Zhao, X. Diffusion of Building Information Modeling in Building Projects and Firms in Singapore. Sustainability 2020, 12, 7762. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12187762

AMA Style

Liao L, Teo EAL, Chang R, Zhao X. Diffusion of Building Information Modeling in Building Projects and Firms in Singapore. Sustainability. 2020; 12(18):7762. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12187762

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liao, Longhui, Evelyn A.L. Teo, Ruidong Chang, and Xianbo Zhao. 2020. "Diffusion of Building Information Modeling in Building Projects and Firms in Singapore" Sustainability 12, no. 18: 7762. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12187762

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