Urbanization in China has been expanding dramatically since 1978, significantly affecting the extreme temperature changes in cities, which is a vital indicator of urban climate change. To assess urban-related effect on regional extreme-temperature changes in China, this study employed high-resolution land use data to divide meteorological stations into rural stations, suburban stations, and urban stations, and evaluated the annual and seasonal changes in extreme minimum temperature (TNN), mean temperature (Tavg) and extreme maximum temperature (TXX) at each meteorological station. The result revealed that extreme temperature indices (TNN, TXX) and Tavg increased significantly from 1960 to 2016 with varied degrees in different seasons and different regions. Extreme temperature indices in high latitudes increased more rapidly than in low latitudes; while the trends in summer are slower than in other seasons. Urbanization effects on the trends of TNN, Tavg and TXX were all statistically significant, but urbanization effects on TNN and Tavg were more significant than TXX. The urbanization effects were more significant in low altitudes, especially in North, South, Northwest and Northeast China. In North, Northwest and Northeast China, the urban-related effects on temperature increase were mainly observed in spring and winter, but in South China, the urban-related effects were more evident in summer. This study is valuable for sustainable urban planning in China.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.