# Design, Modeling, and Experimental Investigation of Active Water Cooling Concentrating Photovoltaic System

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

_{2}(carbon dioxide), where its concentration will cause an average temperature rise of 3–5 °C [3].

^{2}solar irradiation are 70.09% and 19.95%, respectively.

^{2}. For each solar irradiance level, a flow rate of 0.01 kg/s to 1.041 kg/s was introduced. The electrical, thermal, and total efficiency of the PV/T collectors were examined. The results showed that the spiral flow absorption was highest at 800 W/m

^{2}solar intensity and 0.41 kg/s water flow rate, with an electrical efficiency of 13.8%, thermal efficiency of 54.6%, and overall efficiency of 68.4%.

## 2. Theoretical Modeling

#### 2.1. Solar Concentrating System (SCS)

^{2}[12], the solar concentrating system (SCS) is needed to make greater use of solar radiation. In this research, linear Fresnel reflector mirrors were chosen to be the mechanism of concentrating solar radiation, as shown in Figure 1a. The system shown in Figure 1a can be used as a domestic appliance to produce the electric and thermal energy needed. The system is established to be carried and easy to store and transmitted, with dimensions of 1.1 × 1.5 m. The LFRM concentrator system (Figure 1a,b) design equations are shown and presented in Equations (1) to (7).

_{1}) from the receiver to the 1st mirror is obtained from Equation (1):

_{0}is the half-angle subtended by the sun and equal to 0.27° [27].

_{n}is calculated form the presented Equation (3) as:

_{n}) can be calculated from Equation (4):

_{n}) to avoid the shading and blocking effects of the next mirror on the previous one:

_{refl}reaching the receiver is given by the Equation (6):

_{T}is the total incident solar irradiation intensity (W/m

^{2}), CR is the concentration ratio (-), which is calculated as in Equation (7) and ρ

_{m}is the mirror reflectivity:

_{m}is the total mirror project area (m

^{2}) and A

_{r}is the receiver area (m

^{2}).

_{0}= S

_{1}= 0, α

_{0}= 0 and X

_{1}= X

_{0}.

#### 2.2. Incident Solar Radiation to the Mirrors

_{bβ}is the direct radiation incident on the surface base (W/m

^{2}), I

_{bh}is the direct beam radiation on a horizontal plane (W/m

^{2}), α

_{s}is the altitude of the sun from horizontal, α is the angle between surface base normal and solar beam azimuth which is equal to the angle between the solar beam and the longitude meridian (γ

_{s}) minus the angle between the normal to the surface base and the local longitude meridian (γ), Figure 2 shows (γ-(-γ

_{s})), and β

**’**is the surface base angle from vertical. Equations (9) and (10) are used to calculate α

_{s}and γ

_{s}[9]:

#### 2.3. Solar Radiation Incident to the Receiver

_{T}is equal to the sum of direct radiation on the PV surface I’

_{b}, the sky-diffuse radiation I’

_{d}, the ground reflected radiation I’

_{gr}, and the radiation reflected from the mirrors I’

_{refl}[28].

_{b}is the beam absorbed radiation by the receiver and is obtained by:

_{1}is the base frame angle from horizontal and (τα)

_{b}is effective transmittance–absorptance product of cover for beam radiation (-).

_{m}is the mirror angle from horizontal.

#### 2.4. Thermal and Electric Model

_{sc}is the packing factor (the fraction of tedlar plate area covered by the solar cells), I

_{G}is the solar intensified radiation on the receiver (W/m

^{2}), τ

_{g}is the glass transmissivity (-), α

_{sc}is the solar cell absorptivity (-), α

_{td}is the tedlar absorptivity (-), and w is the absorber width (m).

_{w,out}is the water outlet temperature (K), T

_{w,in}is the water inlet temperature (K), L is the absorber length (m), ṁ is the mass flow rate of water (kg/s), and C

_{P}is the specific heat capacity of water (kJ/kg.K), then:

_{R}is the heat removal efficiency factor and obtained from:

_{el}has been calculated from the following Equation (24) [18]:

_{el,ref}is a reference efficiency of solar cell at solar irradiance 1000 W/m

^{2}, µ

_{sc}is the percentage of electrical loss per temperature degree (µ

_{sc}= 0.0045) and temperature T

_{ref}= 25 °C.

_{ele}is an important parameter and is given in Equation (25):

_{overall}is the overall efficiency of the combined PV/T system.

## 3. Experimental Setup

^{−1}).

## 4. Results and Discussion

#### 4.1. Theoretical Results

^{2}and changing the amount of cooling water flow from 0.1–1 kg/min at different solar concentration ratio. In this study, the average wind speed was 2 m/s, and the temperature of the cooling water inside was 293 K.

^{2}. Whereas, the PV cell temperature and absorber temperature were reduced to 333 K and 302 K, respectively, when the cooling flow rate increased to 1 kg/min.

^{2}and concentration ratio 3. The large decrease in electrical efficiency can be reduced by increasing the flow of cooling water, so that the electrical efficiency increases as an example from 11.2% to 13.1% if the amount of flow rate is increased from 0.1 kg/min to 1 kg/min, respectively, at the concentration ratio 3 and solar irradiation 1000 W/m

^{2}.

^{2}solar irradiation with a flow rate of 1 kg/min and a lower thermal efficiency is 32% at a concentration ratio 3 and 1000 W/m

^{2}solar irradiation with a flow rate of 0.1 kg/min.

^{2}, and flow quantity 1 kg/min, while thermal energy at solar concentration 1 was 210 W, whereas, at solar concentration 2 was 400 W under the same operating conditions.

#### 4.2. Experimental Results and Validation

^{2}. In addition, Figure 12 illustrates the measured input and output temperatures of the module cooling water during the day of the test for both configurations.

^{2}.

^{2}. Whereas in Figure 13b, the geometrical concentration ratio was 3, and the produced electrical and thermal power outputs from CPV/T system were 130 W and 525 W, respectively, under 900 W/m

^{2}solar irradiance. The small deviation in electrical power output may be from the coefficient, which was used in the theoretical model or from self-shading of the mirrors image concentrator, and this referred to reduced output power.

## 5. Conclusions

^{2}solar irradiance. The total power of the PV/T module was 245 W, and the CPV/T system was 655 W, with power increasing 167%.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## Appendix A

Specifications | Range | Best Accuracy | |
---|---|---|---|

Model | UT71B | ||

DC Voltage (V) | 200 mV/2 V/20 V/200 V/1000 V | ±(0.05% + 5) | |

DC Current (A) | 200 μA/2000 μA/20 mA/200 mA/10 A | ±(0.15% + 20) | |

Resistance (Ω) | 200 Ω/2 kΩ/20 kΩ/200 kΩ/2 MΩ/20 MΩ | ±(0.4% + 20) | |

Frequency (Hz) | 20 Hz–200 MHz | ±(0.1% + 15) | |

Temperature (°C) | −40 °C~1000 °C | ±(1% + 30) | |

General Characteristics | |||

Data hold | Yes | ||

Display Count | 20,000 | ||

Data storage | yes (100 to feature 300) | ||

Standard accessories | Battery, USB interface cable, PC software CD, point contact temperature probe (option) |

Item | Information | Item | Specification |
---|---|---|---|

Brand | SEAWARD | Irradiance Range | 50–1200 W/m^{2} |

Item No. | 39N146 | Module Temp. Range | 0 to 80 °C |

Mfr. Model No. | SS200R | Ambient Temp. Range | 0 to 70 °C |

Power Source | Battery | Inclinometer Range | 0 to 90° |

Display LCD | Auto | Interface | USB |

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**Figure 1.**Side view: (

**a**) linear Fresnel concentrator system, (

**b**) enlarge mirrors radiation (Section D).

**Figure 2.**(

**a**) The angle of solar radiation falling on the base, (

**b**) plan view showing azimuth angle.

**Figure 4.**The equivalent thermal resistance circuit for the receiver: (

**a**) equivalent thermal resistance; (

**b**) value of thermal resistance.

**Figure 5.**Experimental set-up of concentrating photovoltaic/thermal (CPV/T) system: (

**a**) linear Fresnel reflector mirror (LFRM) concentrating system, (

**b**) electric measurement devices, and (

**c**) thermal measurement system assembly. PV/T—photovoltaic/thermal.

**Figure 12.**Solar radiation, wind velocity, ambient temperature, inlet water temperature, exit water temperature for PV module under non-concentrated and concentrated systems (CR = 3) and ṁ = 0.7 kg/min.

**Figure 13.**Comparison between experimental and theoretical electrical, thermal, and total efficiencies: (

**a**) PV module under non-concentration, and (

**b**) PV module under mirror concentration system (CR = 3) and ṁ = 0.7 kg/min.

**Figure 14.**Comparison between experimental and theoretical electrical, thermal, and total efficiencies: (

**a**) PV module under non-concentration and (

**b**) PV module under mirror concentration system (CR = 3) and ṁ = 0.7 kg/min.

Parameters | Sym. | Units | Mirror No. | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | |||

Horizontal distance | X | mm | 154 | 212 | 311 | 464 | 707 | 1107 |

Mirrors tilt angle | α | Deg. | 6.1 | 9.60 | 13.6 | 18.7 | 24.7 | 30.6 |

Mirrors width | W | mm | 56 | 92.5 | 133 | 183.3 | 238 | 290 |

Spacing between mirrors | S | mm | - | 1.800 | 8.00 | 24.0 | 69.0 | 184 |

Concentration ratio of each mirror | CR | $\mathrm{W}\mathrm{cos}\alpha /w$ | 0.186 | 0.304 | 0.431 | 0.579 | 0.721 | 0.832 |

Total concentration ratio, CR | $\sum}_{1}^{n}\mathrm{W}\mathrm{cos}\alpha /w$ | 0.186 | 0.490 | 0.92 | 1.50 | 2.22 | 3.10 |

Characteristics (STC), (Air Mass AM1.5, Irradiance 1000 W/m^{2}, Cell Temperature 25 °C) | |||
---|---|---|---|

Characteristics | Symbol | Value | Unit |

Open Circuit Voltage | Voc | 26.72 | V |

Short Circuit Current | Isc | 3.15 | A |

Maximum Power Voltage | V_{mpp} | 24.85 | V |

Maximum Power Current | I_{mpp} | 2.83 | A |

Maximum Power | P_{max} | 70 | W |

Module Efficiency | η_{mod.} | 17.5 | % |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Gomaa, M.R.; Al-Dhaifallah, M.; Alahmer, A.; Rezk, H.
Design, Modeling, and Experimental Investigation of Active Water Cooling Concentrating Photovoltaic System. *Sustainability* **2020**, *12*, 5392.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135392

**AMA Style**

Gomaa MR, Al-Dhaifallah M, Alahmer A, Rezk H.
Design, Modeling, and Experimental Investigation of Active Water Cooling Concentrating Photovoltaic System. *Sustainability*. 2020; 12(13):5392.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135392

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Gomaa, Mohamed R., Mujahed Al-Dhaifallah, Ali Alahmer, and Hegazy Rezk.
2020. "Design, Modeling, and Experimental Investigation of Active Water Cooling Concentrating Photovoltaic System" *Sustainability* 12, no. 13: 5392.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135392