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The Attitude of Tourist Destination Residents towards the Effects of Overtourism—Kraków Case Study

Department of Organization and Management, Institute of Economy and Informatics, Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 2A, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
Department of Tourism and Recreation, University School of Physical Education, 31-517 Kraków, Al. Jana Pawła II 78, Poland
Department of Tourism and Recreation, The University College of Tourism and Ecology, 34-200 Sucha Beskidzka, Zamkowa 1, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(1), 228;
Received: 27 November 2019 / Revised: 22 December 2019 / Accepted: 24 December 2019 / Published: 26 December 2019
Scientific research into the effect of tourist traffic in a tourist area have shown that the excessive concentration of tourist traffic leads to overcrowding in attractive locations, over-advertising, and aggressive commercialization, which lower the aesthetic quality of tourists’ experiences and result in the degradation of natural and cultural resources. The effect of excessive tourist numbers is an increase in the price of services, rental fees, and real estate. In historical cities, it causes the gentrification of historical districts. One of the social effects of an increase in tourist numbers is a change in attitude amongst residents towards tourists. This change is dependent on how residents perceive the positive and negative effects of tourism. The appearance of a negative attitude among residents towards tourists is a result of exceeding the social carrying capacity limits, that is, the ability to accept changes as they take place. This article assesses the attitudes of residents and tourist service providers in Kraków with regard to increasing tourist traffic and the ongoing process of change in the cityscape leading to the gentrification of districts most often visited by tourists. On the basis of a study of 518 respondents, including 371 city residents and 147 representatives of the tourist industry (hotel owners, restaurateurs, and tourist service providers), an assessment is made of their attitudes towards the specific problems of tourism development in Kraków. The research results indicate a variety of attitudes among interested parties, thus confirming the research hypothesis that actors display varied approaches with regard to the further development of tourism in Kraków. The conclusions drawn could prove useful in shaping the city’s policy on tourism according to the idea of sustainable development, by taking into consideration the current and future needs of all interested parties. View Full-Text
Keywords: sustainability; overtourism; Kraków; Doxey index; attitudes; residents; service providers sustainability; overtourism; Kraków; Doxey index; attitudes; residents; service providers
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Szromek, A.R.; Kruczek, Z.; Walas, B. The Attitude of Tourist Destination Residents towards the Effects of Overtourism—Kraków Case Study. Sustainability 2020, 12, 228.

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