Next Article in Journal
Creation and Diversified Applications of Plane Module Libraries for Prefabricated Houses Based on BIM
Next Article in Special Issue
Experiencing Nature: Physical Activity, Beauty and Tension in Tatra National Park—Analysis of TripAdvisor Reviews
Previous Article in Journal
Do First-Movers in Marketing Sustainable Products Enjoy Sustainable Advantages? A Seven-Country Comparative Study
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Attitude of Tourist Destination Residents towards the Effects of Overtourism—Kraków Case Study
Open AccessArticle

The Effect of Visitors on the Properties of Vegetation of Calcareous Grasslands in the Context of Width and Distances from Tourist Trails

1
Department of Tourism Geography and Ecology, Institute of Tourism, Faculty of Tourism and Recreation, University of Physical Education in Cracow, 31-571 Cracow, Poland
2
Department of Taxonomy, Phytogeography, and Palaeobotany, Institute of Botany, Faculty of Biology, Jagiellonian University, 30-387 Cracow, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(2), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12020454
Received: 16 December 2019 / Revised: 3 January 2020 / Accepted: 4 January 2020 / Published: 7 January 2020
Over the last decades, valuable natural areas considered as zones of silence and rest have been increasingly struggling with the problem of mass tourism. In this study, an investigation of the effect of visitors on the properties of vegetation of calcareous grasslands in the context of width and distances from tourist trails is performed. The study was conducted in seven localities in Cracow (southern Poland) involving calcareous grasslands impacted by tourist trails. The results show that the lower height of plants, the greater number of species and the greater percentage of plant cover damaged by trampling in plots located close to the edge of tourist trails, as well as lower total plant cover and greater mean cover-abundance degree per species along narrow pathways. The dominance of meadow and grassland species, as well as the prevalence of native species, suggests that the composition of the examined vegetation has not been drastically changed. In the majority of the study plots, the dominance of hemicryptophytes and chamaephytes, inconsiderable share of phanerophytes and therophytes, as well as the low share of geophytes, were observed. The infrequent occurrence of species presenting Bidens dispersal type along narrow pathways, as well as in plots located close to the edge of tourist trails, suggests low external transport of epizoochorous seeds by passing people, while the prevalence of species presenting Cornus type in plots located away from the edge of tourist trails might be the effect of dung deposition by animals. View Full-Text
Keywords: life form; overtourism; dispersal mode; semi-natural habitats; trampling; vascular plants life form; overtourism; dispersal mode; semi-natural habitats; trampling; vascular plants
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Kostrakiewicz-Gierałt, K.; Pliszko, A.; Gmyrek-Gołąb, K. The Effect of Visitors on the Properties of Vegetation of Calcareous Grasslands in the Context of Width and Distances from Tourist Trails. Sustainability 2020, 12, 454.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop