Hi-sAFe: A 3D Agroforestry Model for Integrating Dynamic Tree–Crop Interactions
AbstractAgroforestry, the intentional integration of trees with crops and/or livestock, can lead to
multiple economic and ecological benefits compared to trees and crops/livestock grown separately.
Field experimentation has been the primary approach to understanding the tree–crop interactions
inherent in agroforestry. However, the number of field experiments has been limited by slow tree
maturation and difficulty in obtaining consistent funding. Models have the potential to overcome
these hurdles and rapidly advance understanding of agroforestry systems. Hi‐sAFe is a mechanistic,
biophysical model designed to explore the interactions within agroforestry systems that mix trees
with crops. The model couples the pre‐existing STICS crop model to a new tree model that includes
several plasticity mechanisms responsive to tree–tree and tree–crop competition for light, water,
and nitrogen. Monoculture crop and tree systems can also be simulated, enabling calculation of the
land equivalent ratio. The model’s 3D and spatially explicit form is key for accurately representing
many competition and facilitation processes. Hi‐sAFe is a novel tool for exploring agroforestry
designs (e.g., tree spacing, crop type, tree row orientation), management strategies (e.g., thinning,
branch pruning, root pruning, fertilization, irrigation), and responses to environmental variation
(e.g., latitude, climate change, soil depth, soil structure and fertility, fluctuating water table). By
improving our understanding of the complex interactions within agroforestry systems, Hi‐sAFe can
ultimately facilitate adoption of agroforestry as a sustainable land‐use practice.
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Dupraz, C.; Wolz, K.J.; Lecomte, I.; Talbot, G.; Vincent, G.; Mulia, R.; Bussière, F.; Ozier-Lafontaine, H.; Andrianarisoa, S.; Jackson, N.; Lawson, G.; Dones, N.; Sinoquet, H.; Lusiana, B.; Harja, D.; Domenicano, S.; Reyes, F.; Gosme, M.; Noordwijk, M.V. Hi-sAFe: A 3D Agroforestry Model for Integrating Dynamic Tree–Crop Interactions. Sustainability 2019, 11, 2293.
Dupraz C, Wolz KJ, Lecomte I, Talbot G, Vincent G, Mulia R, Bussière F, Ozier-Lafontaine H, Andrianarisoa S, Jackson N, Lawson G, Dones N, Sinoquet H, Lusiana B, Harja D, Domenicano S, Reyes F, Gosme M, Noordwijk MV. Hi-sAFe: A 3D Agroforestry Model for Integrating Dynamic Tree–Crop Interactions. Sustainability. 2019; 11(8):2293.Chicago/Turabian Style
Dupraz, Christian; Wolz, Kevin J.; Lecomte, Isabelle; Talbot, Grégoire; Vincent, Grégoire; Mulia, Rachmat; Bussière, François; Ozier-Lafontaine, Harry; Andrianarisoa, Sitraka; Jackson, Nick; Lawson, Gerry; Dones, Nicolas; Sinoquet, Hervé; Lusiana, Betha; Harja, Degi; Domenicano, Suzy; Reyes, Francesco; Gosme, Marie; Noordwijk, Meine Van. 2019. "Hi-sAFe: A 3D Agroforestry Model for Integrating Dynamic Tree–Crop Interactions." Sustainability 11, no. 8: 2293.
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