Next Article in Journal
Operating Charging Infrastructure in China to Achieve Sustainable Transportation: The Choice between Company-Owned and Franchised Structures
Next Article in Special Issue
Hi-sAFe: A 3D Agroforestry Model for Integrating Dynamic Tree–Crop Interactions
Previous Article in Journal
Life Stage-Specific Hydropeaking Flow Rules
Article Menu
Issue 6 (March-2) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Germplasm Development of Underutilized Temperate U.S. Tree Crops

Department of Crop Sciences, Institute of Sustainability, Energy, and Environment, Plant Sciences Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1201 S. Dorner Drive, Urbana, IL 61820, USA
Savanna Institute, 1360 Regent Street #124, Madison, WI 53715, USA
Department of Plant Biology and Pathology, Foran Hall, 59 Dudley Road, Rutgers, University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(6), 1546;
Received: 3 February 2019 / Revised: 5 March 2019 / Accepted: 5 March 2019 / Published: 14 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Agroforestry Systems)
PDF [2332 KB, uploaded 14 March 2019]


In the Midwest U.S. dominated corn-soybean landscape, agroforestry systems can be particularly valuable for increasing the provisioning and regulatory capacity of the agricultural landscape. However, these systems have not yet been broadly integrated into the landscape of this region since they are mostly relegated to marginal lands. A growing body of literature suggests a path to increase the adoption of agroforestry in the Midwest U.S. lies in the incorporation of low-input food-producing tree species that provide economic incentives for farmers. Studies of the system-level integration of such approaches have proceeded by using the currently available cultivars and breeding selections of various tree nut and fruit species. While existing varieties and breeding selections provide the opportunity for initial system development and integration, their broad adaptability to the Midwest U.S. and its marginal land-types is unexplored. Thus, a second tier of research includes the genetic improvement and adaptation of tree crop selections to their respective target environments throughout the Midwest U.S. Fortunately, select tree crops of interest are amendable to systematic breeding and have wild relatives that are endemic across the region. In this paper, we discuss the value of these wild relatives for broadening the adaption of cultivated tree crop selections by using the hazelnut as an example species. We present a framework using geospatial tools to define and prioritize target environments for breeding and, in turn, exploiting wild relative germplasm. View Full-Text
Keywords: tree breeding; local adaptations; wild relatives; Corylus americana; hazelnut; agroforestry; marginal land tree breeding; local adaptations; wild relatives; Corylus americana; hazelnut; agroforestry; marginal land

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Revord, R.; Lovell, S.; Molnar, T.; Wolz, K.J.; Mattia, C. Germplasm Development of Underutilized Temperate U.S. Tree Crops. Sustainability 2019, 11, 1546.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top