Several innovative approaches have been proposed in recent years to remediate contaminated sediment to reduce human health and environmental risk. One of the challenges of sediment remediation stems from its unfeasible high cost, especially when ex situ strategies are selected. Therefore, in situ methods such as active capping have been emerging as possible options for solving sediment problems. Active capping methods have been extensively tested in field-scale sediment remediation for organic pollutants (e.g., PCBs, PAHs, DDT) contamination with good sequestration efficiency; however, these methods have not been widely tested for control of heavy metal pollutants, such as mercury (Hg). In this review, the potentials of using iron sulfide minerals to sequestrate Hg were discussed. Iron sulfide minerals are common in the natural environment and have shown good effectiveness in sequestrating Hg by adsorption or precipitation. Iron sulfides can also be synthesized in a laboratory and modified to enhance their sequestration ability for Hg. Some of the potential advantages of iron sulfides are pointed out here. Additional tests to understand the possibility of applying iron sulfides as active caps to remediate complicated environment systems should be conducted.
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