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Food Preservative Capabilities of Grape (Vitis vinifera) and Clementine Mandarin (Citrus reticulata) By-products Extracts in South Africa

1
Department of Food Science, Faculty of AgriSciences, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch 7602, South Africa
2
Postharvest Technology Research Laboratory, South African Research Chair in Postharvest Technology, Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of AgriSciences, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch 7602, South Africa
3
Postharvest Technology Research Laboratory, South African Research Chair in Postharvest Technology, Department of Food Science, Faculty of AgriSciences, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch 7602, South Africa
4
Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of AgriSciences, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch 7602, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(6), 1746; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11061746
Received: 15 February 2019 / Revised: 15 March 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Additives and Sustainability)
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Abstract

The drive towards sustainable food systems coupled with increased consumer sophistication have prompted innovation in waste valorization. Grape and citrus processing by-products, abundant in the Mediterranean and tropical regions, respectively, are expanding and are sustainable sources of bioactive phytochemicals that can be used as natural preservatives for foods. Phytochemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties of extracts from grape pomace (GPE), seeds (GSE), and clementine mandarin peel and pulp (MPE) grown in South Africa were analyzed. Total phenols and carotenoids were highest in GPE followed by GSE and MPE (p ≤ 0.05). Flavonoids and anthocyanins were higher (p ≤ 0.05) in GPE and GSE compared to MPE. The GSE had the highest proanthocyanidins content followed by GPE and MPE (p ≤ 0.05). Ascorbic acid was only detected in MPE, which also had the highest titratable acidity and lowest pH values (p ≤ 0.05). The GSE had the highest antioxidant potency composite index followed by GPE and MPE (p ≤ 0.05). The order of antimicrobial activity of the extracts was MPE > GSE > GPE (p ≤ 0.05). Current findings show that GSE is a potential antioxidant while MPE holds promise as an antimicrobial for the food industry. View Full-Text
Keywords: fruit by-product; antioxidant activity; antimicrobial activity; natural preservative; proanthocyanidins; sustainable food systems fruit by-product; antioxidant activity; antimicrobial activity; natural preservative; proanthocyanidins; sustainable food systems
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Pfukwa, T.M.; Fawole, O.A.; Manley, M.; Gouws, P.A.; Opara, U.L.; Mapiye, C. Food Preservative Capabilities of Grape (Vitis vinifera) and Clementine Mandarin (Citrus reticulata) By-products Extracts in South Africa. Sustainability 2019, 11, 1746.

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