Energy Transitions Towards Low Carbon Resilience: Evaluation of Disaster-Triggered Local and Regional Cases
2. Conceptual Underpinning and Analytical Framework
2.1. Resilience Conceptualizations
2.2. Socio-Technical Transitions
2.3. Conventional and Resilience-Oriented Energy Systems
3. Case Studies
3.1. Description of the Selected Cases
3.1.1. South Australia
3.1.2. Higashi-Matsushima City
3.1.3. Puerto Rico
3.1.4. Igiugig Village
3.1.5. Oregon Coastal Region
3.1.6. Qinghai Province
3.1.7. Urawa-Misono District
3.2. Case Study Evaluation
5. Limitations and Scope for Future Research
Conflicts of Interest
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|Aspect/feature||Conventional Energy Systems||Resilience-Oriented Energy Systems||References|
|System structure||Corporate-based systems characterized by monopolistic and concentrated ownership. Development and maintenance are dependent on large-scale capital investment. Mainly the EngR conceptualization.||Cooperative-based networks of small-scale entities characterized by bottom-up stakeholder engagement and market competition. The more distributed power structure and higher dependence on diverse patterns of financing. EcoR, SocE and SocT.||[18,33,35]|
|Users/ownership||Users (citizens) are passive. EngR and EcoR.||A large share of technologies owned by the community, giving people more power over their own energy. SocE and SocT.||[18,33,35]|
|Energy source/Environmental impact||Mainly fossil-nuclear and hydroelectric energy systems with adverse environmental costs and effects. EngR.||Mainly based on low-carbon, environmentally-friendly and clean renewable sources with minimal environmental impacts. EcoR, SocE and SocT.||[32,33]|
|Adaptability||Inflexible/rigid energy systems that result in lock-in. EngR.||Flexible energy systems adaptable to changing circumstances. EcoR, SocE and SocT.||[18,32]|
|Innovation||Conservative systems dominated by vested interests with limited willingness to change. EngR and EcoR.||Constantly in transition and encouraging innovation supported by new coalitions. SocE and SocT.|||
|Interconnectivity/interoperability||Silo-based and isolated from other systems. EngR.||Importance of feedback loops between different sub-systems and characterized by interconnectivity and interoperability between different components that facilitate real-time supply-demand management. SocE.||[18,36]|
|Modularity||Centralized and large-scale generation and transmission networks and technologies. EngR.||An interconnected network of small-, medium-, large-scale systems characterized by a more modular (autonomous), decentralized and distributed generation and transmission infrastructure. EcoR, SocE and SocT.||[18,35]|
|Redundancy||Limited redundancy to maximize operational and economic efficiency. EngR.||Redundant facilities and redundant capacity (e.g., storage capacity) to deal with uncertainty and buffer against generation variability. EcoR, SocE and SocT.||[33,36]|
|Diversity||Limited diversity. EngR.||Diverse socio-economic and technological structures based on a variety of energy sources. EcoR, SocE and SocT.|||
|Level of establishment||Well-established systems. Private investors may prefer these systems because of concerns over return on investments. EngR.||Lack of commercialization. Unfamiliarity and limited trust from private investors. Need for public and governmental support (specifically, subsidies are needed for start-ups). This can make non-conventional energy systems less affordable and also vulnerable to financial crises. Therefore, alternative systems are expanding at a slow pace. EcoR, SocE and SocT.|||
|Efficiency||Emphasis on economic efficiency. EngR.||Balancing economic efficiency with diversity and redundancy in order to enhance adaptive capacity and minimize vulnerability to surprise shocks and extreme events. However, more improvements in terms of economic efficiency are expected to be achieved as more innovative technologies will emerge in the near future. EcoR, SocE and SocT.|||
|Geographic Typology||Geographic Scale||Disaster/Stressor Type (Trigger)||Renewable Energy Type||Increased Renewable Energy||Status (Temporal)||Technologies||Policy and Measures|
|South Australia, Australia||Inland and coast||Region (1.7 million population)||Major storm knocked out 23 transmission pylons in 2016||Solar and wind||75% RE by 2025 (currently around 42%)||On-going||Large scale battery facilities, new solar plants, virtual power plant. Planned grid interconnector.||Government investment, private sector.|
|Higashi-Matsushima, Japan||Coastal, rural||Community (43,000 population)||Tsunami after earthquake in 2011||Solar||29 times more solar photovoltaics than pre-disaster||Completed||Smart disaster prevention ecotown (mega-solar, biodiesel, large scale battery storage)||Government subsidies, private sector, not-for-profit.|
|Puerto Rico, USA||Island; urban and rural||Region (3.3 million population)||Hurricane Maria in 2017||Solar and wind||Prior Maria, 20% RE goal by 2035. Now the recommendation is increasing RE and reaching 50% (4000 MW) by 2035.||On-going. To be completed by 2027.||Microgrids for critical infra and remote communities, smart grids, battery storage, onsite backup generation, combined heat and power systems||Government subsidies, private sector; US $17.6 billon.|
|Igiugig village, USA||Coastal, islands, rural||Small villages (50–200 people)||Isolation, inability to receive shipments by sea due to winter storms. Fuel for electricity (diesel) is expensive, risk of poor air and water quality. Goes against native/local ethos.||River turbines||100 kW to 5 MW||Demonstration completed; installation under construction.||Hydrokinetic river turbine||Government subsidies, indigenous people, private sector.|
|Oregon coast, USA||Coastal, islands, rural||Region (30,000–100,000 population)||Subduction zone earthquake, tsunami risk, severe storms||Wave, wind, solar||5–10 MW, 50% RE by 2040||Planning||Wave energy devices||Government investment, private sector|
|Qinghai Province, China||Rural, desert Gobi||Region (5.98 million people), PV station 24.33km2||Environment disaster, trade frictions, climate negotiation||Solar PV-Hydro||850MW PV||Completed in 2015||Solar PV-Hydro Hybrid, 24.7 billion m3 storage capacity||Government investment, US $1.2 billon for PV|
|Urawa-Misono, Saitama City, Japan||Inland, urban||City district (7476 population)||Disruptions due to natural disasters such as earthquakes and typhoons||Solar PV with batteries||100 kW PV||Demonstration on-going||Blockchain-based distributed energy systems with peer-to-peer exchanges||Government financial support, private investment|
|Criteria||Characteristics of Resilient Energy Systems||South Australia||Higashi-Matsushima, Japan||Puerto-Rico, USA||Igiugig Village, USA||Oregon Coast, USA||Qinghai Province, China||Urawa-Misono, Japan|
|System structure||Cooperative-based networks of small-scale entities||⊗||⨀||⨀||⨀||⨀||⊗||⨀|
|Bottom-up stakeholder engagement.||⊗||⨀||⊗||⨀||⨀||⊗||⨀|
|Distributed power structure||⊗||⨀||⨀||⨀||⨀||⊗||⨀|
|Users/ownership||Owned by the community||⊗||⨀||⊗||⨀||⊗||⊗||⨀|
|Energy source/Environmental impact||Low-carbon, environmentally- friendly and clean renewable sources||⨀||⨀||⨀||⨀||⨀||⨀||⨀|
|Adaptability||Flexible energy systems adaptable to changes||⨀||⨀||⨀||⊗||⨀||⨀||⨀|
|Innovation||Transformation and innovation (e.g., ICT, virtual power plants, etc.)||⨀||⨀||⨀||⨀||⨀||⨀||⨀|
|Interconnectivity/interoperability||Feedback loops between different sub-systems||⨀||⊗||⨀||⨀||⊗||⨀||⨀|
|Interconnectivity and interoperability||⨀||⨀||⨀||⊗||⨀||⨀||⨀|
|Modularity||An interconnected network of multi-scale systems||⨀||⨀||⨀||⊗||⨀||⨀||⨀|
|Modular (autonomous), decentralized and distributed generation and transmission||⨀||⨀||⨀||⨀||⨀||⊗||⨀|
|Redundancy||Redundant facilities and redundant capacity (e.g., storage capacity)||⨀||⨀||⨀||⨀||⨀||⨀||⨀|
|Diversity||Diverse socio-economic and technological structures based on a variety of energy sources||⨀||⨀||⨀||⊗||⨀||⨀||⨀|
|Public support||Public and governmental support||⨀||⨀||⨀||⨀||⨀||⨀||⨀|
|Balance||Balancing efficiency with diversity and redundancy||⨀||⨀||⨀||⊗||⨀||⨀||⨀|
|Overall Score||Score from a max total of 15||11||14||13||10||13||10||15|
© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Ko, Y.; Barrett, B.F.D.; Copping, A.E.; Sharifi, A.; Yarime, M.; Wang, X. Energy Transitions Towards Low Carbon Resilience: Evaluation of Disaster-Triggered Local and Regional Cases. Sustainability 2019, 11, 6801. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236801
Ko Y, Barrett BFD, Copping AE, Sharifi A, Yarime M, Wang X. Energy Transitions Towards Low Carbon Resilience: Evaluation of Disaster-Triggered Local and Regional Cases. Sustainability. 2019; 11(23):6801. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236801Chicago/Turabian Style
Ko, Yekang, Brendan F. D. Barrett, Andrea E. Copping, Ayyoob Sharifi, Masaru Yarime, and Xin Wang. 2019. "Energy Transitions Towards Low Carbon Resilience: Evaluation of Disaster-Triggered Local and Regional Cases" Sustainability 11, no. 23: 6801. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236801