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Open AccessArticle

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Climate Change Adaptations in the World’s Largest Mangrove Ecosystem

1
Institute of Rural Management Anand (IRMA), Anand 388001, India
2
Computer Science Department, University of Thessaly, 35100 Lamia, Greece
3
Faculty of Technology, University of Thessaly, 41500 Larisa, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6655; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236655
Received: 22 September 2019 / Revised: 20 November 2019 / Accepted: 20 November 2019 / Published: 25 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green, Closed Loop, Circular Bio-Economy)
The Sundarbans is the world’s largest coastal river delta and the largest uninterrupted mangrove ecosystem. A complex socio-ecological setting, coupled with disproportionately high climate-change exposure and severe ecological and social vulnerabilities, has turned it into a climate hotspot requiring well-designed adaptation interventions. We have used the fuzzy cognitive maps (FCM)-based approach to elicit and integrate stakeholders’ perceptions regarding current climate forcing, consequent impacts, and efficacy of the existing adaptation measures. We have also undertaken climate modelling to ascertain long-term future trends of climate forcing. FCM-based simulations reveal that while existing adaptation practices provide resilience to an extent, they are grossly inadequate in the context of providing future resilience. Even well-planned adaptations may not be entirely transformative in such a fragile ecosystem. It was through FCM-based simulations that we realised that a coastal river delta in a developing nation merits special attention for climate-resilient adaptation planning and execution. Measures that are likely to enhance adaptive capabilities of the local communities include those involving gender-responsive and adaptive governance, human resource capacity building, commitments of global communities for adaptation financing, education and awareness programmes, and embedding indigenous and local knowledge into decision making. View Full-Text
Keywords: climate change adaptation; transformative adaptation; limits to adaptation; adaptation barrier; fuzzy cognitive maps; resilience; sustainability; vulnerability; Sundarbans climate change adaptation; transformative adaptation; limits to adaptation; adaptation barrier; fuzzy cognitive maps; resilience; sustainability; vulnerability; Sundarbans
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MDPI and ACS Style

Singh, P.K.; Papageorgiou, K.; Chudasama, H.; Papageorgiou, E.I. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Climate Change Adaptations in the World’s Largest Mangrove Ecosystem. Sustainability 2019, 11, 6655. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236655

AMA Style

Singh PK, Papageorgiou K, Chudasama H, Papageorgiou EI. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Climate Change Adaptations in the World’s Largest Mangrove Ecosystem. Sustainability. 2019; 11(23):6655. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236655

Chicago/Turabian Style

Singh, Pramod K.; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Chudasama, Harpalsinh; Papageorgiou, Elpiniki I. 2019. "Evaluating the Effectiveness of Climate Change Adaptations in the World’s Largest Mangrove Ecosystem" Sustainability 11, no. 23: 6655. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236655

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