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Sustainability and Competitiveness in the Tourism Industry and Tourist Destinations: A Bibliometric Study
Open AccessArticle

Diversification in Tourism-Related Activities and Social Sustainability in the State of Hidalgo, Mexico

Institute of Economic Sciences and Management, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, 42160 Pachuca, Mexico
Faculty of Economics and Business, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(22), 6429;
Received: 12 October 2019 / Revised: 7 November 2019 / Accepted: 12 November 2019 / Published: 15 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Competitiveness, Sustainability and Tourism)
The objective of this paper is to explore the empirical relationships between the economic diversification of tourism-specific products (TSPs) and human development (as a key piece of social sustainability) at the sub-state level using the scenario of the State of Hidalgo in the year 2014 (the most recent period available) as the context for the study. The first step was to develop an algebraic analysis using the reflection method (RM) to map, for the first time, the diversity and ubiquity of the municipalities of Hidalgo in relation to tourism-related activities in the region. Secondly, additional diversity proxy measures were calculated, namely Shannon’s entropy and the Hirshman–Herfindalhl index, using employment data derived from the TSPs. This allowed us to run a series of regressions that show the explanatory power of the diversification of tourism-related activities on human development. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that the diversification of tourism activities within the analyzed context is essential for social sustainability, which frames the relevance of tourism to promote the development of the region. Finally, it is noted that one of the greatest contributions of this research is the provision of empirical evidence regarding the diversity of the TSPs in a specific context, because given the peculiar structure of tourism, it is not easy to quantify the diversification of the tourism sector in an economy. View Full-Text
Keywords: diversification; social sustainability; tourism-specific products diversification; social sustainability; tourism-specific products
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Hernández-Calzada, M.A.; Pérez-Hernández, C.C.; Ferreiro-Seoane, F.J. Diversification in Tourism-Related Activities and Social Sustainability in the State of Hidalgo, Mexico. Sustainability 2019, 11, 6429.

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