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Article

Influence of Stone Bunds on Vegetation and Soil in an Area Reforested with Pinus engelmannii Carr. in the Forests of Durango, Mexico

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Programa Institucional de Doctorado en Ciencias Agropecuarias y Forestales, Universidad Juárez del Estado de Durango, Constitución 404 sur Zona Centro, Durango CP 34000, Mexico
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Facultad de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad Juárez del Estado de Durango, Río Papaloapan y Boulevard, Durango S/N Col. Valle del Sur, Durango CP 34120, Mexico
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Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Juárez del Estado de Durango, Carretera Durango-Mezquital, Km 11.5, Durango CP 34307, Mexico
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Instituto Politécnico Nacional-Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigación para el Desarrollo Integral Regional Durango, Sigma 119, Fraccionamiento 20 de Noviembre II, Durango CP 34220, Mexico
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Instituto Tecnológico del Valle del Guadiana, Carretera Durango-México Km 22.5 s/n, Durango CP 34371, Mexico
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Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias-Centro de Investigación Regional Norte, Carretera Chihuahua-Ojinaga Km 33.3, Aldama, Chihuahua CP 32910, Mexico
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 5033; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185033
Received: 30 July 2019 / Revised: 7 September 2019 / Accepted: 10 September 2019 / Published: 14 September 2019
The forest ecosystems of Mexico experience soil degradation mainly due to water erosion, which causes low vegetation regeneration. One of the strategies to diminish soil loss is through the construction of stone bunds (SB)—hand-made structures to trap sediment and store water for longer periods. However, little is known about their effects on pine establishment. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of SB on the survival and growth of individual P. engelmannii Carr. specimens with respect to the distance of their planted. The study additionally sought to analyse how SB would affect changes in the production of aerial phytomass, herbaceous vegetation cover and soil characteristics in a reforested area of Durango State in north-central Mexico. Three treatments were evaluated by planting pine trees at three distances with respect to the SB: 80 cm upslope bund (UB), 80 cm downslope bund (DB) and between upper and lower bunds (BB). The variables analysed were the following: The survival and growth of reforestation, aerial coverage and the production of herbaceous plants, and the physicochemical characteristics of the soil. Survival showed significant differences (p < 0.05) among treatments, UB (80%), DB (27%) and BB (30%). The production of aerial phytomass did not show significant differences between treatments UB (1651 kg ha−1) and DB (1058 kg ha−1), although these two were different (p < 0.05) to BB (600 kg ha−1). On the other hand, the vegetation cover and soil characteristics did not show statistical differences. These results highlight the importance of the effect of SB on the survival of P. engelmannii Carr. and the growth of herbaceous vegetation. View Full-Text
Keywords: stone bunds; reforestation; aerial phytomass; survival; erosion stone bunds; reforestation; aerial phytomass; survival; erosion
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ponce-Rodríguez, M.d.C.; Prieto-Ruíz, J.Á.; Carrete-Carreón, F.O.; Pérez-López, M.E.; Muñoz-Ramos, J.d.J.; Reyes-Estrada, O.; Ramírez-Garduño, H. Influence of Stone Bunds on Vegetation and Soil in an Area Reforested with Pinus engelmannii Carr. in the Forests of Durango, Mexico. Sustainability 2019, 11, 5033. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185033

AMA Style

Ponce-Rodríguez MdC, Prieto-Ruíz JÁ, Carrete-Carreón FO, Pérez-López ME, Muñoz-Ramos JdJ, Reyes-Estrada O, Ramírez-Garduño H. Influence of Stone Bunds on Vegetation and Soil in an Area Reforested with Pinus engelmannii Carr. in the Forests of Durango, Mexico. Sustainability. 2019; 11(18):5033. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185033

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ponce-Rodríguez, Ma. d.C., José Á. Prieto-Ruíz, Francisco O. Carrete-Carreón, María E. Pérez-López, José d.J. Muñoz-Ramos, Osvaldo Reyes-Estrada, and Héctor Ramírez-Garduño. 2019. "Influence of Stone Bunds on Vegetation and Soil in an Area Reforested with Pinus engelmannii Carr. in the Forests of Durango, Mexico" Sustainability 11, no. 18: 5033. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185033

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