2. Literature Review
2.1. Methods Used to Reduce Traffic Congestion
2.2. Ring Roads against Traffic Congestion
2.3. Generated Traffic
4. Categorization of Methods into Three Concepts
4.1. Concept 1: Heavy Engineering Measures
4.1.1. Polegate (United Kingdom)
4.1.2. Five Bypass Roads (United Kingdom)
4.2. Concept 2: Travel Demand Management with Push and Pull Measures
4.2.1. Hasselt (Belgium)
4.2.2. Malmö (Sweden)
4.3. Concept 3: Combined Heavy Engineering Measures and Travel Demand Management with Push and Pull Measures
4.3.1. Stockholm (Sweden)
4.3.2. Oslo (Norway)
4.4. Effectiveness of the Three Concepts
5. Traffic Congestion in Almaty (Kazakhstan)
The Big Almaty Ring Road (Kazakhstan)
6. Big Almaty Ring Road (BAKAD) analysis
6.1. Expert Opinion on BAKAD
Q1: What will be the results of the BAKAD project in terms of congestion, environmental impact (air quality), and new developments along the BAKAD? Will it solve congestion in the long run in Almaty?
Q2: Do you know if any developments (housing, business and other) are planned in the BAKAD Project? Will these developments around the BAKAD project stimulate employment?
Q3: In your opinion, will the BAKAD ring road cause changes in the behaviour patterns of Almaty inhabitants in the long run? Will there be a new growth of car owners?
Q4: Please provide a few methods to destimulate car ownership in Almaty
- building park-and-ride areas (P + R) at the entrances to the city and at metro;
- increasing the number of suburban bus routes to Kaskelen, Uzyn Agash, Talgar, Esik, Kapshagai from Almaty city and settlements adjacent to the city;
- launching commuter trains to Uzyn Agash, Kapshagay, Talgar;
- increasing the cost of parking in the city centre and making the city centre a paid area;
- organising transport services for students and staff at educational institutions;
- introducing fines for cars that do not meet Euro 5 fuel standards;
- developing a convenient bicycle infrastructure in Almaty;
- providing excellent, low-cost and frequent public transport inside the city and on the outskirts;
- ensuring a safe licensed taxi service and providing safety in general in the city.
Q5: Do you think that the charging system on BAKAD bypass will attract drivers to use it?
Q6: Do you think that the BAKAD project must be a part of an integrated plan to solve congestion problems in Almaty (with other intercity measures such as improvement of public transport, cycling conditions, decreasing car use, road pricing)?
- Control taxis with proper taxi licenses and designated taxi points. Currently, there are huge numbers of gypsy taxis who stop here and there for passengers and occupy the external lanes, leading to ineffective use of road capacity.
- Develop a proper transport facility for school-going students. Everyone knows how the traffic flow slows down from 1 September, when classes start for schools. Following the example of the USA, where a couple of buses collect children at special areas at certain time periods, instead of 30 private cars with parents and students occupying the road space and creating traffic congestion, there will be 1 bus on the road.
- Improve the public transport facilities, develop an underground metro in the city centre, since there is not enough open space.
- Develop trains from the suburbs (Talgar, Kapchagay, Kaskelen). Although this is expensive, it would effectively replace the huge traffic flow coming from the suburbs to the city centre. A taxi driver can make 2–3 trips every day in the morning from Talgar to Almaty. One train would replace no less than 100 cars.
Q7: What would personally motivate you to ride a bike to work?
Q8: What do you think of the second BRT corridor that will pass along densely populated streets such as Zheltoksan, Tole bi and the Eastern bypass road to the new bus station on the Kuldzhinsky highway in 2021?
Q9: From the beginning of April 2019, reconstruction work with a priority for pedestrians on the sections of Baiseitova Street, Zhibek Zholy and Dostyk Avenue will start (Figure 18). What is your opinion?
6.2. Recommendations for Almaty
- Apply a mixed land use approach to reduce travel distances in Almaty.
- Develop a centralized spatial planning system that integrates both transport infrastructure and land-use development.
- Introduce a congestion charge (toll) for driving a car in the city centre, and then the revenues from tolls can be further invested in public transport facilities in Almaty.
- Ideally, it should be aimed to make the city centre a car-free zone; thus, an excellent public transport alternative must be ensured. For example, in Hasselt city, vehicle drivers are obliged to leave their cars outside the city centre and further reach their destinations by different modes.
- Start operation of LRT or restore operation of tram infrastructure that was developed during the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic period, and increase the routes of the existing underground metro.
- Increase the number of buses and the frequency of their operation, and ensure that drivers and conductors are trained, polite and helpful to passengers with disabilities in getting into the bus.
- Add BRT lines on other streets in Almaty and prohibit gypsy taxi services on streets with BRT lines.
- Reduce the number of parking lots in the city centre and convert them into pedestrian zones. Impose a reasonable charge for parking, with short-term parking only, thereby discouraging car usage.
- Make cycling lanes safe for cyclists and give priority to cyclists on roads (as several cases demonstrate that buses or private cars take up road space dedicated for cyclists), provide bike parking facilities near commercial, business centres (develop bike promoting programs).
- Develop train services and increase bus frequencies from the suburbs (Talgar, Kapchagay and Kaskelen) to Almaty to remove the huge traffic flow coming daily from suburbs to the city centre for work and study.
- An expedited transition to gas of all heat power plants, public transport and residential sector in Almaty and Almaty’s regional area to minimize air pollution. Remove unfit and old cars from roads to minimize air pollution.
- Organize various promotional and social campaigns such as car-free days, days with free-of-charge bus service, etc.
- All stakeholders, including Almaty residents, must be involved in the planning process.
- Develop a shared mobility taxi service to move more people with fewer vehicles; app-based ride-hailing services such as Yandex, Uber, EcoTaxi.kz will need to apply such option for trips in Almaty and Almaty’s regional area.
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|Road/Scheme Name||Growth in Excess of Average Traffic Background Growth||Likelihood of Induced Traffic|
|A500 Basford, Hough, Shavington bypass||+7.7% in 5 years||Yes|
|A66 Stainburn & Great Clifton bypass||+2.1% or +13.6% in 7 years||Yes|
|A1 Willowburn–Denwick Improvement||+21.8% in 8 years||Yes|
|A1 Bramham–Wetherby||+7.4% in 3 years||Yes|
|A10 Wadesmill to Colliers End bypass||+2.3% or +6.3% in 6 years||Yes|
|Concept 1: Heavy Engineering Measures||Concept 2: Travel Demand Management with Push and Pull Measures||Concept 3: Heavy Engineering + Travel Demand Management with Push and Pull Measures|
|Polegate Bypass: 76% total increase in traffic with 27% induced traffic after one year, and 32% induced traffic after five years.||Hasselt: after 1 year 16% switched from car to bus, 12% from bicycle to bus, 9% former pedestrians to bus; By 2006, free-of-charge buses in Hasselt transported around 4.6 million travellers annually versus 1.5 million bus users in 1997||Stockholm: Essinge bypass + congestion charges (tolls), expanded bus service decreased the number of vehicle kilometres driven in the inner city by 16%, vehicle-traffic reduction of 22% over the charge cordon|
|A500 Basford, Hough, Shavington bypass: 7.7% increase in 5 years; |
A66 Stainburn & Great Clifton bypass: 13.6% increase in 7 years;
A1 Willowburn–Denwick Improvement: 21.8% increase in 8 years;
A1 Bramham–Wetherby bypass: 7.4% increase in 3 years.
|Malmö: 30% of residents use bicycles to reach workplaces; individual car traffic decreased by 6% in the period of 2006 to 2011 against a population increase of 9% and an increase of workers by 15%.||Oslo: Festningstunnel + congestion charges in 2005–2015 the public transport share increased from 21% to 32%, while car ownership decreased from 45% to 34%.|
|Newbury Bypass: FYA: vastly exceeded the HA’s 1995 worst case estimate that there would be no more than 10% induced traffic. Forecasted traffic volume was exceeded by 46% six years before the 2010 prediction .||Utrecht: increased bicycle use and car sharing by almost 50% and reduced private car use by 14% . Hague: decreased car ownership by 12%, the use of public transport grew from 30% to 65% .||Helsinki: ring road + charging policies reduced peak-period traffic congestion by 10–30% on the main roads in the metropolitan area .|
|Barnstaple Bypass: 20% induced traffic in 3 years; M62: 19% induced traffic in 5 years; |
Severn Bypass: 44% induced traffic in 1 year .
|Seoul Cheonggyecheon: decommissioning of freeway in the city centre and “improved bus services, longer subway operation time, new bus lines circling the CBD area, raised parking rates” removed traffic congestion of 168,000 cars per day [42,43]; resulted in a 15.1% increase in bus ridership and a 3.3% increase in subway ridership within 2003 and 2008, decreased car use by 45% .||Milan: underground network extensions + city centre charge + “new bus lanes, high bus frequency, increase in parking restriction and fees, park-and-ride facilities”  decreased car traffic by 34% in the city centre .|
|North Sea Channel of the Amsterdam Ring Road: one year after opening, 8% traffic increase occurred, of which 5% was induced traffic. After five years, total number of trips rose by 22%, of which 7% was induced traffic.||Jellicoe Street, Auckland: removal of industrial service road, opening pedestrian boulevard, car bans area, integration of LRT and shared-space approach, controlled parking increased cycling volume by 67%, increased bus use by 57%, decrease in car use by 456% .||Gothenburg: Göteborg congestion tolled cordon + new bus lanes, parking space restrictions in the city centre reduced car traffic across the cordon by 12% and by 6% in the city centre .|
|A316 (London): 84% induced traffic in 8 years; M11 (London): 38% induced traffic in 9 years; Leigh Bypass: 20% induced traffic in 1 year .||Paris: Pompidou Expressway closure + “a car free zone along the left bank and a shared space on the right bank with a narrower road for cars, and wider routes for pedestrians and cyclists” decreased private car use by 20% in 5 years .||Jakarta: Outer ring road + congestion charges + Great Jakarta commuter train extension, mass rapid transit (MRT), LRT, BRT reduce car traffic by 30% in the city centre .|
|Westway (London): 50% induced traffic in 10 years;|
Manchester Ring: 23% induced traffic in 1 year .
|Vauban, Freiburg: a car-free, parking free, mixed-use neighbourhood (district of short distance), direct bus-tram interchange, not-for-profit Car-Sharing service reduced car use by 57%, increased bicycle use by 75% .||Hammersby Sjostad, Stockholm: 160 ha brownfield redevelopment + Tvärbanan tram line extension, 2 new bus lines, near congestion toll boundary, car-sharing, bike-sharing, bicycle parking per building increased public transport use by 52% and walking and cycling by 27%, car use is only 21% .|
|Non-effective in long term.||Effective||Effective|
|Village Name||Station Point||Distance from the Route, m|
|Assel village||SP 0 + 00–SP 1 + 50||20 m on the left|
|Housing area||SP 13 + 00–SP 20||From both sides|
|Raimbek village||SP 19 + 00–SP 33 + 00||Right 400 m|
|Raimbek-2 village||ПK 52 + 00–SP 55+00||Right 280 m|
|Lastochka village||SP 75 + 00–SP 117 + 00||On the left 550–690 m|
|Aksengir village||SP 209 + 00–SP 210 + 00||Left 20 m|
|Aksengir village||SP 213 + –SP 215 + 00||On the axis of the road|
|Issaevo village||SP 225 + 00–SP 227 + 00||Left 50 m|
|Tuimebayev village||SP 374 + 00–SP 379 + 00||On the axis of the road|
|Yntymak village||SP 420 + 00–SP 426 + 00||Right 600 m|
|Pokrovka village||SP 454 + 00–SP 468 + 00||Through settlement|
|Kyzyltu village||SP 528 + 00–SP 530 + 00||On the right 20 m|
|Taldybulak village||SP 649 + 00–SP 653 + 00||Right 140 m|
|Kyzylkairat village||SP 653 + 00–SP 658 + 00||To the left 200 m|
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