Major metropolitan cities worldwide have extensively invested to secure utilities and build state-of-the-art infrastructure related to underground fluid transportation. Sewer and water pipelines make our lives extremely convenient when they function appropriately. However, leakages in underground pipe mains causes sinkholes and drinking-water scarcity. Sinkholes are the complex problems stemming from the interaction of leaked water and ground. The aim of this work is to review the existing methods for monitoring leakage in underground pipelines, the sinkholes caused by these leakages, and the viability of wireless sensor networking (WSN) for monitoring leakages and sinkholes. Herein, the authors have discussed the methods based on different objectives and their applicability via various approaches—(1) patent analysis; (2) web-of-science analysis; (3) WSN-based pipeline leakage and sinkhole monitoring. The study shows that the research on sinkholes due to leakages in sewer and water pipelines by using WSN is still in a premature stage and needs extensive investigation and research contributions. Additionally, the authors have suggested prospects for future research by comparing, analyzing, and classifying the reviewed methods. This study advocates collocating WSN, Internet of things, and artificial intelligence with pipeline monitoring methods to resolve the issues of the sinkhole occurrence.
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