Next Article in Journal
Interaction between Higher Education Outputs and Industrial Structure Evolution: Evidence from Hubei Province, China
Next Article in Special Issue
Evaluating Sustainability in Traditional Silvopastoral Systems (caívas): Looking Beyond the Impact of Animals on Biodiversity
Previous Article in Journal
The Influence of Buyer Power on Supply Chain Pricing with Downstream Competition
Previous Article in Special Issue
Agroforestry and Biodiversity
Open AccessArticle

Crop Diseases and Mycotoxin Accumulation in Temperate Agroforestry Systems

Molecular Phytopathology and Mycotoxin Research, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Goettingen, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(10), 2925; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11102925
Received: 27 March 2019 / Revised: 17 May 2019 / Accepted: 21 May 2019 / Published: 23 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Agroforestry Systems)
Background: Temperate agroforestry is regarded as a sustainable alternative to monoculture agriculture due to enhanced provisioning of ecosystem services. Plant health and food safety are crucial requirements for sustainable agriculture; however, studies of fungal diseases and mycotoxin contamination of crops grown under temperate agroforestry are lacking. This study therefore aimed to compare fungal colonization and mycotoxin contamination of crops grown in temperate agroforestry against conventional monoculture. Methods: The biomass of plant pathogenic fungi in oilseed rape plants and barley and wheat grain harvested in 2016 to 2018 at four paired agroforestry and monoculture sites was quantified using species-specific real-time PCR. Mycotoxin content of barley and wheat grain was determined by HPLC-MS/MS. Results: The colonization of oilseed rape plants with the vascular pathogen Verticillium longisporum and wheat grain with the head blight pathogen Fusarium tricinctum was lower in agroforestry than in conventional monoculture. Mycotoxin content of barley and wheat grain did not differ between agroforestry and monoculture systems and did not exceed the legal limits of the EU. Remarkably, fumonisin B1 was detected in wheat grains at two sites in two years, yet the low levels found do not raise food safety concerns. No differences were found between the two production systems with regard to infection of wheat and barley grain with five Fusarium species (F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. poae, and F. proliferatum) and oilseed rape with fungal pathogens Leptosphaeria biglobosa, Leptosphaeria maculans, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Conclusions: Temperate agroforestry does not negatively affect the infection of wheat, barley and oilseed rape with major fungal pathogens though it may suppress the infection of oilseed rape with V. longisporum and wheat grain with F. tricinctum. Furthermore, temperate agroforestry does not increase mycotoxin contamination of barley and wheat. Therefore, temperate agroforestry does not negatively affect food safety. View Full-Text
Keywords: temperate agroforestry systems; silvoarable agroforestry; alley cropping; barley; wheat; oilseed rape; Fusarium head blight; mycotoxins; Verticillium longisporum temperate agroforestry systems; silvoarable agroforestry; alley cropping; barley; wheat; oilseed rape; Fusarium head blight; mycotoxins; Verticillium longisporum
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Beule, L.; Lehtsaar, E.; Rathgeb, A.; Karlovsky, P. Crop Diseases and Mycotoxin Accumulation in Temperate Agroforestry Systems. Sustainability 2019, 11, 2925.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map

1
Back to TopTop