Links between Climate Change Mitigation, Adaptation and Development in Land Policy and Ecosystem Restoration Projects: Lessons from South Africa
- What are the mitigation, adaptation and development co-benefits produced across the case studies at community-level, and how well do these map onto the challenges perceived by people? (Section 3.3).
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Study Country and Case Study Selection
2.1.1. Case Study 1: Living Lands
2.1.2. Case Study 2: Jobs 4 Carbon (J4C)
3.1. Policy Drivers of Projects That Support Triple Wins
3.2. Reported Project and Policy-Level Achievements and Challenges across Adaptation, Mitigation and Development
3.3. Perceived Community-Level Project Benefits and Challenges across Adaptation, Mitigation and Development
Conflicts of Interest
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|Method||Stakeholder Type||Sample Size (Total N): Case Study 1 Living Lands||Sample Size (Total N): Case Study 2 J4C||Total|
|Semi-structured interviews (community-level)||Land owners||4 (4)||4 (7)||8|
|Field workers||8 (9)||15 (24)||23|
|Semi-structured interviews (experts)||Project developers||6||3||9|
|Semi-structured interviews (experts)||Policy makers and academia||7||5||12|
|Participatory site visits||Mixed||3||4||7|
|Adaptation: Adjustment made to cope with climate impacts, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities (adapted from Noble et al. )|
• Built environment & ecosystem-based: ponding, natural barriers, soil & water conservation
• Educational: awareness raising, knowledge-sharing and learning platforms
• Informational: community-based adaptation plans and participatory scenario development
• Behavioural: changing cropping & livestock practices and livelihood diversification; reliance on social networks.
(Source: adapted from Noble et al. )
|Mitigation: Intervention that reduces greenhouse gases emissions and increases their uptakes by the Earth system (adapted from Denton et al. )|
• Trees planted, soil restored and carbon sequestration
(Source: adapted from Powell )
|Development: Intervention that enhances short and long-term capabilities, assets and activities required for a means of living, towards the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (adapted from Chambers and Conway  and Suckall et al. )|
• Skills, knowledge, training
• Labour power
• Livelihood diversification
• Networks, connectedness, membership, relationships of trust
• Information exchange, empowerment, ownership
• Access to land, water, wildlife, flora, forest
• Soil organic carbon
• Infrastructure and production equipment
• Savings, access to regular income and credit, insurance
(Source: adapted from Carney )
|Policy/Programme||Objectives Addressing Adaptation, Mitigation and Development|
|Expanded Public Works Programmes (EPWP): Basic Conditions of Employment Act (1997); and Ministerial Determination (2012)||Programmes aimed at improving public natural assets through labour-intensive activities:|
Working for Ecosystems: reverse environmental degradation through ecological restoration; enhance carbon sequestration, water regulation and purification; reducing natural disasters by improving landscape/catchment stability and resilience.
Working for Water: foster labour-intensive community development for environmental conservation. Create an enabling environment for skills training and health improvement.
Working for Land: restore degraded ecosystems to their original state so to maintain or support their natural species. Address land degradation caused by overgrazing, soil erosion and unsustainable farming.
|Subtropical Thicket Restoration Programme (STRP), 2007–2016||Demonstrate feasibility of restoring thicket at a farm scale to provide biodiversity gains and carbon sequestration on a landscape scale through labour-intense activities.|
|National Development Plan—Vision 2030 (2009)||Protect and enhance environmental assets and natural resources as a basis for economic growth and development.|
Increase employment to pursue economic growth. Reduce GHG emissions and entrench an economy-wide carbon price.
Broaden the EPWP to cover two million fulltime jobs by 2020.
|National Framework for Sustainable Development (2008); National Strategy for Sustainable Development and Action Plan (2011–2014)||Foster ecological sustainability through transition towards a resource-efficient, low-carbon, pro-employment growth path.|
Stabilise GHG concentrations and adapt to climate change impacts.
Foster a green economy.
|Benefit Reported||Living Lands||J4C||EPWP/STRP|
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Favretto, N.; Dougill, A.J.; Stringer, L.C.; Afionis, S.; Quinn, C.H. Links between Climate Change Mitigation, Adaptation and Development in Land Policy and Ecosystem Restoration Projects: Lessons from South Africa. Sustainability 2018, 10, 779. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030779
Favretto N, Dougill AJ, Stringer LC, Afionis S, Quinn CH. Links between Climate Change Mitigation, Adaptation and Development in Land Policy and Ecosystem Restoration Projects: Lessons from South Africa. Sustainability. 2018; 10(3):779. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030779Chicago/Turabian Style
Favretto, Nicola, Andrew J. Dougill, Lindsay C. Stringer, Stavros Afionis, and Claire H. Quinn. 2018. "Links between Climate Change Mitigation, Adaptation and Development in Land Policy and Ecosystem Restoration Projects: Lessons from South Africa" Sustainability 10, no. 3: 779. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030779