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Article

Landfill Final Cover Systems Design for Arid Areas Using the HELP Model: A Case Study in the Babylon Governorate, Iraq

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Department of Civil Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Lulea University of Technology, 971 87 Lulea, Sweden
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Department of Environment Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Babylon, Babylon 51001, Iraq
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Kurdistan Institution for strategic studies and scientific Research, Sulaimaniyah 460013, Iraq
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Abdullah Mustafa Muhamed Al-Rawabdeh, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Yarmouk University, Irbid, P:BOX 566, 21163, Jordan
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Remote Sensing Center, University of Kufa, Kufa, 54003, Iraq
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Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa, Kufa, 54003, Iraq
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4568; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124568
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 28 November 2018 / Accepted: 29 November 2018 / Published: 3 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
The main purpose of selecting proper designs for landfills is to accommodate quantities of waste without having a negative effect on the surrounding environment and human health. The Babylon Governorate (province) in Iraq was taken as an example of an arid area with very shallow groundwater and where irregular waste disposal sites had developed that had not been subject to international standards when they were selected for landfill use. In the current study, the suggested design for landfills is a base liner and final cover system. In this suggested design, the final cover system allows for three scenarios. The first scenario considers an evapotranspiration soil cover (ET) (capillary barriers type), the second scenario is a modified cover design of “RCRA Subtitle D”, and the third scenario is a combination of the first and second scenarios. The HELP 3.95 D model was applied to the selected landfill sites in the governorate to check if there was any penetration of the leachate that might in future percolate from the landfill’s bottom barrier layer in arid areas. The results from the suggested landfill design showed that there was no leachate percolation from the bottom barrier layer using the second and third scenarios. For the first scenario, however, there was a small amount of leachate through the bottom barrier layer in the years 2013 and 2014. View Full-Text
Keywords: landfill; suggested design; cover systems; HELP 3.95 D model; arid area; shallow groundwater landfill; suggested design; cover systems; HELP 3.95 D model; arid area; shallow groundwater
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chabuk, A.; Al-Ansari, N.; Alkaradaghi, K.; Al-Rawabdeh, A.M.M.; Laue, J.; Hussain, H.M.; Pusch, R.; Knutsson, S. Landfill Final Cover Systems Design for Arid Areas Using the HELP Model: A Case Study in the Babylon Governorate, Iraq. Sustainability 2018, 10, 4568. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124568

AMA Style

Chabuk A, Al-Ansari N, Alkaradaghi K, Al-Rawabdeh AMM, Laue J, Hussain HM, Pusch R, Knutsson S. Landfill Final Cover Systems Design for Arid Areas Using the HELP Model: A Case Study in the Babylon Governorate, Iraq. Sustainability. 2018; 10(12):4568. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124568

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chabuk, Ali, Nadhir Al-Ansari, Karwan Alkaradaghi, Abdulla M.M. Al-Rawabdeh, Jan Laue, Hussain M. Hussain, Roland Pusch, and Sven Knutsson. 2018. "Landfill Final Cover Systems Design for Arid Areas Using the HELP Model: A Case Study in the Babylon Governorate, Iraq" Sustainability 10, no. 12: 4568. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124568

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