The Moku System: Managing Biocultural Resources for Abundance within Social-Ecological Regions in Hawaiʻi
Conflicts of Interest
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|Land Division Term||Unit within the System|
|moku||A social-ecological region|
|ʻokana/kalana||Intermediate category being either a group of ahupuaʻa within a moku that collectively compose a larger watershed; or a smaller watershed within a single, large ahupuaʻa|
|ahupuaʻa||A social-ecological community|
|ʻili||A division within an ahupuaʻa, often associated with an extended family|
|moʻo||A section of land within an ʻili|
|pauku||A strip of land within an moʻo|
|kīhāpai and others||Various types of cultivated plots|
|Social-Ecological Zone||Translation||Management Implications|
|wao akua||Sacred forest||Primary function: Perpetual source population for endemic biodiversity.
Designated as “sacred forest”, making it a restricted forest zone for a native-only plant community, accessed only under strict protocols.
Associated with montane cloud forest, elfin forest.
|wao kele||Wet forest||Primary function: Maximize aquifer recharge.
An untended forest zone associated with core watershed areas (remote upland, wet forest below the clouds) which was left as a native-dominant plant community.
Impractical for access except for transit-through via trails.
|wao nāhele||Remote Forest||Primary function: Maximize habitat for native birds.
A forest zone that was minimally-tended (generally remote upland, mesic forest) and left as a native-dominant plant community.
Impractical for access except by bird catchers and feather gatherers.
|wao lāʻau||Agro-forest||Primary function: Maximize the availability of timber and non-timber forest products.|
A zone allowing for the management of a highly-tended forest via an integrated agroforestry (native and introduced plants) regime:
|wao kānaka||Habitation zone||Primary function: landscape-scale augmentation to maximize the availability of food, medicine, and housing.
A zone allowing for (but not mandating) the conversion of forest to field agriculture, aquaculture, habitation, recreation, and/or temple worship.
Native and introduced trees tended, individually or in groves, for regular and specific cultural services.
|Marine Social-Ecological Zone||Translation by Authors|
|ka poʻina nalu||Fringing reef with breaking waves |
(representing the seaward boundary of ahupuaʻa)
|kai lūheʻe||Sea for fishing with octopus lures|
|kai koholā||Sea frequented by humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae)|
(submerged volcanic shelves)
|kai ʻele||Black sea|
(deep-sea area, possibly between volcanic shelves)
|kai uli||Dark sea|
(deep-sea area, possibly beyond the islands’ volcanic foundations)
|kai pualena||Sea along the horizon that gets the first touch of the sun’s light |
|kai pōpolohua-a-Kāne-i-kahiki||Distant, dark sea associated with the travels of Kāne|
(deep-sea area beyond sight of land)
|Life Form||Edible Species||Source|
|Freshwater vertebrates||5||Maly and Maly 2003 |
|Freshwater invertebrates||4||Maly and Maly 2003 |
|Ocean vertebrates||231||Maly and Maly 2003 |
|Ocean invertebrates||57||Maly and Maly 2003 |
|Macro-algae||29||Abbott 1996 |
|Birds||38||Keauokalani 1859–1860 |
|Kapu Type||Description of kapu||Examples|
|Seasonal harvest restriction associated with spawning periods||Placed an annual ban on the harvest of key fish species during their spawning season, which helped to ensure healthy populations for future fishing seasons.||Annual six-month kapu on ʻŌpelu|
|Monthly harvest restriction associated with particular moon phases||Regulated either specific harvest practices or harvest of particular species on named moon phases, which effectively staggered harvesting pressure throughout the month and protected spawning events occurring on certain moons.||No fishing allowed on the 27th phase of the moon (Kāne).|
|Occasional access restriction, associated with particular areas||Intermittently imposed to restrict human access into areas that needed immediate recovery, or in areas being saved for a planned large harvest in the foreseeable future.||Lāwaʻi (an ahupuaʻa in Kona, Kauaʻi) is a place-name commemorating the lifting of a kapu over the entire bay fronting that ahupuaʻa.|
|Occasional harvest restriction, associated with a particular taxa||Intermittently imposed to temporarily rest harvest of specific taxa observed to be in decline as a means to facilitate population recovery.||Kapu placed on ʻUla (lobster, Panulirus marginatus) when population observed to be in decline.|
|Occasional harvest restriction, associated with a particular life-stage of a specific taxa||Prevented harvest of particular species at key stages in their life cycles, as a means to manage population demographics of that species and enhance reproduction. These restrictions only protected certain life stages while other life stages of that same species could be harvested.||Kapu placed on Moi liʻi (juvenile threadfin, Polydactylus sexfilis) only, while allowing for the harvest of other life stages of the same species.|
|Component of Decision Matrix||Component Description and Contextual Interpretation|
|moana-nui-ākea||The sea from the shoreline to the horizon, as seen from the highest vantage point in the area; and all associated biota.|
|kahakaipepeiao||The area extending from the place where the ocean meets the land to the place where soil exists. This includes the splash zone where algae, crabs, and other shellfish may be located; sands where turtles nest; dunes where seabirds nest and coastal strand vegetation exists; sea cliffs; and all associated biota.|
|mauka||The area from where soil begins, extending all the way to the mountaintops; and all associated biota.|
|nāmuliwai||All the sources of fresh water—artesian springs, streams (including coastal springs that create brackish-water and contribute to healthy and productive estuarine environments); and all associated biota.|
|kalewalani||The realm inclusive of everything above the land—the air, winds, sky, clouds, rain, rainbows, birds, atmosphere, sun, moon, planets, and stars. This encompasses all the elements and celestial bodies that influence the tides and ocean currents, which directed traditional navigation and guided fishing and planting seasons.|
|kānakahōnua||The needs of the people. This included the kānāwai (laws) that governed behaviors and ensured a functioning society which contributed to the people’s health and well-being.|
|papahelōlona||The intellect and cumulative knowledge built up over generations. This is the knowledge of kahuna (keepers of priestly knowledge), knowledge about the connections across the social-ecological system and the correlations between the cycles of nature, and knowledge of expert practitioners in astronomy, healing, and other schools of knowledge.|
|keʻihiʻihi||The spiritual realm and the ceremonies needed to maintain pono (balance) in the ʻāina. These included elements of nature, ancestral deities, and religious protocols needed to maintain sanctity in the landscape.|
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Winter, K.B.; Beamer, K.; Vaughan, M.B.; Friedlander, A.M.; Kido, M.H.; Whitehead, A.N.; Akutagawa, M.K.H.; Kurashima, N.; Lucas, M.P.; Nyberg, B. The Moku System: Managing Biocultural Resources for Abundance within Social-Ecological Regions in Hawaiʻi. Sustainability 2018, 10, 3554. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103554
Winter KB, Beamer K, Vaughan MB, Friedlander AM, Kido MH, Whitehead AN, Akutagawa MKH, Kurashima N, Lucas MP, Nyberg B. The Moku System: Managing Biocultural Resources for Abundance within Social-Ecological Regions in Hawaiʻi. Sustainability. 2018; 10(10):3554. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103554Chicago/Turabian Style
Winter, Kawika B., Kamanamaikalani Beamer, Mehana Blaich Vaughan, Alan M. Friedlander, Mike H. Kido, A. Nāmaka Whitehead, Malia K.H. Akutagawa, Natalie Kurashima, Matthew Paul Lucas, and Ben Nyberg. 2018. "The Moku System: Managing Biocultural Resources for Abundance within Social-Ecological Regions in Hawaiʻi" Sustainability 10, no. 10: 3554. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103554