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Article

The Moku System: Managing Biocultural Resources for Abundance within Social-Ecological Regions in Hawaiʻi

1
Hawaiʻi Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, Kāneʻohe, HI 96744, USA
2
National Tropical Botanical Garden, Kalāheo, HI 96741, USA
3
Natural Resources and Environmental Management, University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
4
Hawaiʻinuiākea School of Hawaiian Knowledge—Kamakakūokalani Center for Hawaiian Studies University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
5
William S. Richardson School of Law—Ka Huli Ao Center for Excellence in Native Hawaiian Law, University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, HI 96822, USA
6
Hui ʻĀina Momona Program, University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
7
University of Hawaiʻi Sea Grant College Program, University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
8
Fisheries Ecology Research Lab, University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
9
Pristine Seas, National Geographic Society, Washington, DC 20036, USA
10
Pacific Biosciences Research Center, University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
11
Natural and Cultural Resources, Kamehameha Schools, Honolulu, HI 96813, USA
12
Department of Geography and Environment, University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2018, 10(10), 3554; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103554
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 29 September 2018 / Accepted: 1 October 2018 / Published: 4 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocultural Restoration in Hawaiʻi)
Through research, restoration of agro-ecological sites, and a renaissance of cultural awareness in Hawaiʻi, there has been a growing recognition of the ingenuity of the Hawaiian biocultural resource management system. The contemporary term for this system, “the ahupuaʻa system”, does not accurately convey the nuances of system function, and it inhibits an understanding about the complexity of the system’s management. We examined six aspects of the Hawaiian biocultural resource management system to understand its framework for systematic management. Based on a more holistic understanding of this system’s structure and function, we introduce the term, “the moku system”, to describe the Hawaiian biocultural resource management system, which divided large islands into social-ecological regions and further into interrelated social-ecological communities. This system had several social-ecological zones running horizontally across each region, which divided individual communities vertically while connecting them to adjacent communities horizontally; and, thus, created a mosaic that contained forested landscapes, cultural landscapes, and seascapes, which synergistically harnessed a diversity of ecosystem services to facilitate an abundance of biocultural resources. “The moku system”, is a term that is more conducive to large-scale biocultural restoration in the contemporary period, while being inclusive of the smaller-scale divisions that allowed for a highly functional system. View Full-Text
Keywords: Hawaii; biocultural resource management (BRM); ahupuaa; social-ecological community; social-ecological zone Hawaii; biocultural resource management (BRM); ahupuaa; social-ecological community; social-ecological zone
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MDPI and ACS Style

Winter, K.B.; Beamer, K.; Vaughan, M.B.; Friedlander, A.M.; Kido, M.H.; Whitehead, A.N.; Akutagawa, M.K.H.; Kurashima, N.; Lucas, M.P.; Nyberg, B. The Moku System: Managing Biocultural Resources for Abundance within Social-Ecological Regions in Hawaiʻi. Sustainability 2018, 10, 3554. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103554

AMA Style

Winter KB, Beamer K, Vaughan MB, Friedlander AM, Kido MH, Whitehead AN, Akutagawa MKH, Kurashima N, Lucas MP, Nyberg B. The Moku System: Managing Biocultural Resources for Abundance within Social-Ecological Regions in Hawaiʻi. Sustainability. 2018; 10(10):3554. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103554

Chicago/Turabian Style

Winter, Kawika B.; Beamer, Kamanamaikalani; Vaughan, Mehana B.; Friedlander, Alan M.; Kido, Mike H.; Whitehead, A. N.; Akutagawa, Malia K.H.; Kurashima, Natalie; Lucas, Matthew P.; Nyberg, Ben. 2018. "The Moku System: Managing Biocultural Resources for Abundance within Social-Ecological Regions in Hawaiʻi" Sustainability 10, no. 10: 3554. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103554

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