Next Article in Journal
Configuration Analysis of Plug-in Hybrid Systems using Global Optimization
Previous Article in Journal
Energy issue of pure electric vehicle in China
World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.
Open AccessArticle

Energy and environmental characterization of operational modes of plug-in vehicles

IDMEC - Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1 - 1049-001 Lisboa – Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(2), 380-390; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6020380
Published: 28 June 2013
This paper presents an energy and environmental characterization of the two most relevant Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles available in the market (Opel Ampera and Toyota Prius Plug-in), in order to provide an estimate of fuel and electricity consumption, tailpipe emissions and charge depleting mode mileage for any drive cycle studied, based on vehicle specific power methodology. These vehicles were monitored under real-world operation with a portable laboratory that collects data from vehicle sensors (via on-board diagnosis port), exhaust gas composition and GPS in a second-by-second basis. An indirect method to measure battery energy fluxes and consequently estimating electric range was developed, providing maximum errors for the Charge Depleting driving range of 4.2% for the Toyota Prius Plug-in and -0.2% for the Opel, when comparing with measured data. Regarding fuel consumption, the maximum error verified was of -4.1%. Using two driving profiles measured in Portugal and the USA, the performance of the two vehicles under charge depleting (CD) and charge sustaining (CS) conditions was compared. Major findings indicate that Opel Ampera is more efficient in CD mode, while the Prius Plug-In is more efficient under CS conditions, but highly dependent on driving behavior when in CD mode.
Keywords: Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles; driver behavior; on-road monitoring; energy efficiency; tailpipe emissions Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles; driver behavior; on-road monitoring; energy efficiency; tailpipe emissions
MDPI and ACS Style

Duarte, G.; Lopes, R.; Gonçalves, G.; Farias, T. Energy and environmental characterization of operational modes of plug-in vehicles. World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6, 380-390.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Access Map

1
Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop