Beyond the State of the Art of Electric Vehicles: A Fact-Based Paper of the Current and Prospective Electric Vehicle Technologies
Mobility, Logistics and Automotive Technology Research Centre (MOBI), Department of Electrical Engineering and Energy Technology (ETEC), Faculty of Engineering, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), 1050 Brussel, Belgium
Flanders Make, 3001 Heverlee, Belgium
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
World Electr. Veh. J. 2021, 12(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12010020
Received: 30 November 2020 / Revised: 30 December 2020 / Accepted: 29 January 2021 / Published: 3 February 2021
Today, there are many recent developments that focus on improving the electric vehicles and their components, particularly regarding advances in batteries, energy management systems, autonomous features and charging infrastructure. This plays an important role in developing next electric vehicle generations, and encourages more efficient and sustainable eco-system. This paper not only provides insights in the latest knowledge and developments of electric vehicles (EVs), but also the new promising and novel EV technologies based on scientific facts and figures—which could be from a technological point of view feasible by 2030. In this paper, potential design and modelling tools, such as digital twin with connected Internet-of-Things (IoT), are addressed. Furthermore, the potential technological challenges and research gaps in all EV aspects from hard-core battery material sciences, power electronics and powertrain engineering up to environmental assessments and market considerations are addressed. The paper is based on the knowledge of the 140+ FTE counting multidisciplinary research centre MOBI-VUB, that has a 40-year track record in the field of electric vehicles and e-mobility.
Keywords: electric vehicle; digital twin; wide bandgap semiconductors; power converters; solid-state batteries; ultra-high fast chargers; vehicle-to-grid (V2G); vehicle-to-X (V2X); sustainable energy communities; renewable energy sources; autonomous electric vehicles; optical wireless communications