Beyond the State of the Art of Electric Vehicles: A Fact-Based Paper of the Current and Prospective Electric Vehicle Technologies
2. The Next Generation EV Propulsion Systems
2.1. Digital Twin Development for EVs and Its Associated Benefits
- Ensuring a leap forward in user’s confidence, functionalities and energy efficiency of future EVs: These characteristics can estimate vehicle characteristics and usability. For example, affordability, driving range, range prediction, overall trip time and especially suitability of a long-range trip and comfort under all ambient conditions and traffic situations.
- Multi-Physics Modelling for stress analysis: This analysis can prevent failures by predicting them in advance, which, in turn, will help to reduce the downtime.
- Mission-profile-based reliability analysis for predictive maintenance: From the mission-profile-oriented accelerated lifetime testing, the degradation of the battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivetrain can be identified of the components critical to system reliability. Therefore, product developers will have more knowledge to be innovative in a fast and reliable way, testing many numbers and combinations of different variants of drivetrain components and experimenting with unorthodox approaches. Furthermore, using the data gathered from the vehicles’ digital twin can develop maintenance protocols/schedules to ensure that the components are available prior to their estimated failure in the EV and minimise inventory stockpiles.
2.2. Power Electronics Interfaces Based on WBG Technologies
3. The Next Generation Solid-State Battery
3.1. Recent Lithium Battery Technology Developments
3.2. Towards Solid-State Batteries
3.3. Challenges and Potential Solutions for the Solid-State Battery
- Poor wetting between Li and solid electrolyte: The poor wetting between lithium and solid electrolyte results in an interfacial resistance. Solid electrolytes, especially ceramic-based solid electrolytes, have relatively high interfacial resistance caused by poor wetting of Li. This inhibits the utilisation of Li in solid-state batteries. It was found out that polymer-based solid electrolytes, despite their lower ionic conductivity when compared to ceramic counterparts, shows enhanced Li wetting. Accordingly, Li wetting problem can be solved by using polymer/ceramic composites as electrolytes .
- Dendrite propagation and growth: When using Li metal, dendrite formation and propagation become serious problems in high power applications. Critical current density values for solid-state batteries are quite far away from the target value of 5 mA/cm2 [44,45]. Besides, there is a difference between plating (charging) and stripping (discharging), and the critical current density needs to be eliminated. The mechanism and possible solutions for that are still unclear, but special attention has been paid on producing the electrolytes as dense as possible, since the dendrite propagation is drastically inhibited in dense microstructures .
- Solid electrolyte synthesis: Solid electrolytes having high ionic conductivity is hard for synthesising, storing and handling. They require sophisticated methods, oxygen-free environments that make their use not cost-efficient. In this regard, there’s an ongoing desire to reduce the production cost and ease the handleability of the solid electrolytes.
- Cell fabrication: Cell fabrication by using a ceramic type of electrolytes require hot pressing techniques that apply high pressure and temperature at the same time to ensure the smooth contact between electrolyte and electrodes (Figure 4). However, that problem can be solved by design engineering. Bulk type solid-state batteries can be assembled, and satisfying capacity retention could be gathered from these batteries . On the other hand, scalability is the most important challenge for bulk-type battery designs. Polymers and polymer/ceramic composites are considered as a potential solution for large scale manufacturing of solid-state batteries because of their industrial-scale ease of production.
3.4. Self-Healing Batteries with Embedded Sensors
- Auto-repair of damaged electrodes to restore their conductivity.
- Regulation of ion transport within the cell.
- Minimising the effect of parasitic side reactions.
3.5. Second-Life: Challenges and Opportunities
4. Intelligent Bidirectional V2G and/or Ultra-High-Power Charging Systems
4.1. Introduction to Unidirectional and Bidirectional Charging Systems
4.2. Wide Bandgap Devices for Bidirectional (V2G/G2V) On-Board Charging Systems
4.3. Ultra-High Power Off-Board Charging System
4.4. Intelligent Bidirectional Control Systems
4.4.1. Centralised Control Systems for Modular PEC
4.4.2. Distributed Control Systems for Modular PEC
5. The road to Climate Neutral Transport and Energy Sector
5.1. Sustainable Energy Communities
- Batteries can be used for energy arbitrage: for economic benefits, energy is stored when cheap in the wholesale market, and released when more expensive.
- Batteries can help in delaying or reducing investment needs in production, transmission or distribution infrastructure, this service is called capacity credit. This can be done by load levelling or peak shaving for instance.
- The fast response of batteries is necessary to provide high performance ancillary services such as voltage and frequency regulation.
- Behind the meter, batteries can help in reducing electricity bill, increasing of PV self-consumption in microgrids and backup power.
5.2. Current Impact on Climate Change
6. Autonomous Electric Vehicles (AEV)
6.1. Wireless Communication as a Key Enabling Technology
6.2. Shared Autonomous Electric Vehicles (SAEV)
Conflicts of Interest
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|Type of Chargers||Location of Charger||Power Supply/Output||Typical Charging Time|
|Level 1||Single phase|
|Vac: 230 (EU)|
Vac: 120 (US)
Output: 12–16 A; ~1.44 kW to ~1.92 kW
|8–10 h depending on model, used for home charging|
3–8 km of range per hour of charging
|Level 2||Single/three phase|
|Vac: 400 (EU)|
Vac: 240 (US)
Output: 15–80 A;
~3.1 kW to ~19.2 kW
|4–8 h, available at home and publicly|
16–32 km of range per hour of charging
|Level 3 |
DC Fast Chargers (DCFC)
|Uses a three-phase Vac: 208–600 AC circuit converted to direct current (DC) to the vehicle. |
Output: Up to 500 A; 50 kW up to 350 kW
|30–60 min |
100–130 km of range per hour of charging
Ultra-Fast Charging System (UFCS)
|Uses a three-phase Vac: 208–600 AC circuit converted to direct current (DC) to the vehicle.|
Output: 800 V, 400 kW or more
|Time to charge to a 320 km range: approximately 7.5 min|
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Van Mierlo, J.; Berecibar, M.; El Baghdadi, M.; De Cauwer, C.; Messagie, M.; Coosemans, T.; Jacobs, V.A.; Hegazy, O. Beyond the State of the Art of Electric Vehicles: A Fact-Based Paper of the Current and Prospective Electric Vehicle Technologies. World Electr. Veh. J. 2021, 12, 20. https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12010020
Van Mierlo J, Berecibar M, El Baghdadi M, De Cauwer C, Messagie M, Coosemans T, Jacobs VA, Hegazy O. Beyond the State of the Art of Electric Vehicles: A Fact-Based Paper of the Current and Prospective Electric Vehicle Technologies. World Electric Vehicle Journal. 2021; 12(1):20. https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12010020Chicago/Turabian Style
Van Mierlo, Joeri, Maitane Berecibar, Mohamed El Baghdadi, Cedric De Cauwer, Maarten Messagie, Thierry Coosemans, Valéry Ann Jacobs, and Omar Hegazy. 2021. "Beyond the State of the Art of Electric Vehicles: A Fact-Based Paper of the Current and Prospective Electric Vehicle Technologies" World Electric Vehicle Journal 12, no. 1: 20. https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12010020