# Comprehensive Review on Main Topologies of Impedance Source Inverter Used in Electric Vehicle Applications

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Impedance Source Inverters

#### 2.1. Z-Source Inverter

_{dc}. Figure 1 shows the topology of bidirectional ZSI feeding AC load. ZSI has a unique characteristic of buck–boost capability, which permits it to have wide voltage range. Then, ZSI offers novel power conversion concept. Simultaneous triggering of both switches from the same leg of ZSI does not cause any failure, because the inductor of current fed ZSI can sustain high current. However, ZSI is not suitable for very low input DC voltages [25]. It cannot suppress the inrush current and also produces discontinuous input source current [26]. There are also different grounds for source and inverter circuits [27]. High-voltage capacitors are required, leading to an increase to the cost and volume of the system [26]. In recent years, many Z-source single-phase inverters have been proposed [12,13,14,15,16,17,18].

#### 2.2. Quasi-Z-Source Inverter

#### 2.3. Embedded Z-Source Inverter

#### 2.4. Embedded Quasi-Z-Source Inverter

#### 2.5. Trans-Z-Source Inverter

#### 2.6. Y-Source Inverter

#### 2.7. Γ-Z-Source Inverter

#### 2.8. LCCT-Z-Source Inverter

#### 2.9. Advantages and Disadvantages of the Main Impedance Source Network Topologies

## 3. Z-Source Inverters for EV Applications

#### 3.1. Z-Source Inverters for Single-Source EV Applications

#### 3.2. Z-Source Inverter for Multisource EV Applications

#### 3.2.1. Bidirectional EQZSI for Multisource EV Applications

#### Electric Vehicle Specifications and Modeling

#### Modeling of Bidirectional Embedded Quasi-Z-Source Inverter

_{0}is the interval of the shoot-through state and T

_{1}is the interval of non-shoot-through state, their relationship is T

_{0}+ T

_{1}= T, and the shoot-through duty ratio is $D=\frac{{T}_{0}}{T}.$ The dynamic equations can be described as shown in [59]. During the steady state, the capacitor voltages and inductor currents can be deduced as follows:

#### PI-Based Controllers Design

#### 3.2.2. Simulation Results and Discussion

_{s}is the switching frequency, ${v}_{c1}$ is the average capacitor voltage, $\Delta {i}_{L1}$ is the value of inductor current ripple at peak power to certain value, ${i}_{L1}$ is the average current of the inductor and $\Delta {v}_{c1}$ represents the value of capacitor voltage ripple at peak power.

#### 3.3. Future Trends

## 4. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 2.**Bidirectional quasi-Z-source inverter topologies: voltage-fed one with continuous current (

**a**); voltage-fed one with discontinuous current (

**b**); current-fed one with continuous current (

**c**); current-fed one with discontinuous current (

**d**).

Impedance Network | Figure # | Boost Factor B | Switching Devices | Number of Capacitors | Number of Inductors | Voltage Stress on the Switching Device |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Z-Source | # 1 | $\frac{1}{1-2D}$ where, $0\le D\le 0.5$ | 1 | 2 | 2 | $\frac{1}{1-2D}{v}_{in}$ |

Quasi-Z-Source | # 2a | $\frac{1}{1-2D}$ where, $0\le D\le 0.5$ | 1 | 2 | 2 | $\frac{1}{1-2D}{v}_{in}$ |

Embedded Z-Source | # 3 | $\frac{1}{1-2D}$ where, $0\le D\le 0.5$ | 1 | 2 | 2 | $\frac{1}{1-2D}{v}_{in}$ |

Embedded Quasi-Z-Source | # 4 | $\frac{1}{1-2D}$ where, $0\le D\le 0.5$ | 1 | 2 | 2 | $\frac{1}{1-2D}({v}_{1}+{v}_{2})$ |

Trans-Z-Source | # 5 | $\frac{1}{1-\left(n+1\right)D}$ where, $0\le D\le $ ${\left(n+1\right)}^{-1}$ $n\in \mathbb{N}$ | 1 | 1 | Integrated two windings | $\frac{n}{1-\left(n+1\right)D}{v}_{in}$ |

Y-Source | # 6 | $\frac{1}{1-KD}$ where, $K\ge 2$ and $0\le D\le \frac{1}{K}$ | 1 | 1 | Integrated three windings | $\frac{K-1}{1-KD}{v}_{in}$ |

Γ-Z-source | # 7 | $\frac{1}{1-\left[1+{\left(n-1\right)}^{-1}\right]D}$ where, $0\le D\le $ ${\left[1+{\left(n-1\right)}^{-1}\right]}^{-1}$ $1<n<2$ $n\in {\mathbb{N}}^{*}$ | 1 | 2 | One inductor and one 2 windings coupled inductor | $\frac{1}{\left(n-1\right)\left[1-\left(1+{\left(n-1\right)}^{-1}\right)D\right]}{v}_{in}$ |

LCCT-Z-source | # 8 | $\frac{1}{1-\left(n+1\right)D}$ where, $0\le D\le $ ${\left(n+1\right)}^{-1}$ $n\in \mathbb{N}$ | 1 | 2 | 2 | $\frac{n}{1-\left(n+1\right)D}{v}_{in}$ |

Impedance Network | Advantages | Disadvantages |
---|---|---|

Z-Source | - Overcomes the disadvantages of voltage source and current source inverters. - Offers novel power conversion concept. - Both switches from the same leg trigger at the same time do not cause any failure. - Inductor of current fed ZSI sustains high current. - Benefits to motor drives and renewable-energy-generation applications. | - Discontinuous input current. - Not suitable for very low input DC voltages [25]. - Cannot suppress the inrush current. - Different grounds for source and inverter circuits [26]. - High-voltage capacitors, which are required, increase the cost and volume of the system. - The shoot-through duty ratio must always be less than 0.5. |

Quasi-Z-Source | - Continuous input current. - Reduces passive component ratings. - Provides lower current stress on inductors compared to ZSI. - Shares common ground with input DC supply [26]. - Benefits to motor drives and renewable-energy-generation applications. | - The shoot-through duty ratio must always be less than 0.5. - Not suitable for very low input DC voltage. |

Embedded Z-Source | - Draws smooth current from source, without additional component. - Produce smaller ripples of input voltage and current. - Suitable for battery storage systems and PV-power generation. | - Different stress distribution among components, provided by its asymmetrical structure. - Supplied current is no longer maintained. - The shoot-through-duty ratio must always be less than 0.5. |

Embedded Quasi-Z-Source | - Continuous input current. - Draws smooth current from source, without additional component. - Appropriate for battery storage systems and multisource power-conversion systems. | -The shoot-through duty ratio must always be less than 0.5. - Not suitable for very low input DC voltages. |

Trans-Z-Source | - Increases voltage gain more than the case of Z-source and quasi-Z-source network. - Reduces component stress. - Able to operate on very low input voltage. - Suitable for renewable-energy generation. | - High gain is obtained with high winding-turns ratio. - Discontinuous input current. - Transformers and coupled inductors increase volume and cost. |

Y-Source | - Very high gain can be obtained with small shoot-through-duty cycle. - Higher voltage boost and higher modulation index can be obtained at the same time. - Reduced THD of the inverter. - Suitable for power-conversion applications. | - Discontinuous input current. - Electromagnetic interference noise affects its reliability. |

Γ-Z-source | - High gain can be achieved by lowering turn ratio. - Better spectral performance. - Continuous input current. - Convenient for renewable energy generation. | - Leakage inductance affects the voltage and current stress over semiconductors. |

LCCT-Z-source | - Have continuous current even during light load. - Filter out high-frequency ripples from source current. - Appropriate for renewable-energy generation and power-conversion applications. | - Have high winding-turns ratio. - Electromagnetic interference noise affects its reliability. |

Impedance Network Topology | Switching Frequency | Typical Used Power | Applications |
---|---|---|---|

Z-Source | 10 kHz | 15 kW (maximum output power) | Electric vehicles [38] |

125 kW (maximum output power) | Photovoltaic and Grid systems [39] | ||

12 kHz | 4.5 kW (rated power) | Wind Turbines [40] | |

Quasi-Z-Source | 100 kHz | 10.6 kW (maximum output power) | Electric vehicles [41] |

20 kHz | 300 W (rated power) | Hybrid electric vehicles [42] | |

10 kHz | 2.6 kW (rated power) | Photovoltaic and Grid systems [43] | |

Embedded Z-Source | 7 kHz | 6 kW (maximum output power) | Photovoltaic and Grid systems [44] |

Embedded Quasi-Z-Source | 10 kHz | 375 W (maximum output power) | Photovoltaic [32] |

Trans-Z-Source | 20 kHz | 6 kW (rated power) | Photovoltaic, fuel cell and Grid system [45] |

Y-Source | 20 kHz | 2 kW (maximum output power) | Electric vehicle [46] |

10 kHz | 18.25 kW (maximum output power) | Photovoltaic [47] | |

Γ-Z-source | 10 kHz | 3 kW (maximum output power) | Photovoltaic and Grid systems [48] |

LCCT-Z-source | 20 kHz | 4.5 kW (rated power) | Permanent magnet synchronous generators [18] |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Mande, D.; Trovão, J.P.; Ta, M.C.
Comprehensive Review on Main Topologies of Impedance Source Inverter Used in Electric Vehicle Applications. *World Electr. Veh. J.* **2020**, *11*, 37.
https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj11020037

**AMA Style**

Mande D, Trovão JP, Ta MC.
Comprehensive Review on Main Topologies of Impedance Source Inverter Used in Electric Vehicle Applications. *World Electric Vehicle Journal*. 2020; 11(2):37.
https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj11020037

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Mande, Daouda, João Pedro Trovão, and Minh Cao Ta.
2020. "Comprehensive Review on Main Topologies of Impedance Source Inverter Used in Electric Vehicle Applications" *World Electric Vehicle Journal* 11, no. 2: 37.
https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj11020037