# Real-World Driving Cycles Adaptability of Electric Vehicles

^{1}

^{2}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Real-World Driving Cycles

#### 2.1. Collect Information of Real-World Driving Cycle

#### 2.2. Characteristics of Real-World Driving Cycle

^{2}under R1 condition. We can see from Figure 3e,f that the probability of velocity is the highest between 60–80 km/h and the acceleration is mainly distributed between $-$1–1 m/s

^{2}under R2 condition. From Figure 3e,f we know that the probability of velocity is the highest between 110–120 km/h and the acceleration is mainly distributed between $-$0.5–0.5 m/s

^{2}under R3 condition.

## 3. Mathematical Model of Vehicles

#### 3.1. Power System Structure Model

#### 3.2. Lithium Battery Model

^{+}) break free from the anode, spread to the cathode via electrolyte and join the cathode. The charging process is the opposite. The total voltage of the battery is the difference between cathode and anode voltages [30]. The battery model is as shown in Figure 4.

#### 3.3. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel-Cell Model

## 4. Model Validation

## 5. Results and Analysis

#### 5.1. Simulation Results of Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV)

#### 5.1.1. Joint Distribution of Velocity, Accelerated Velocity and Battery Power of BEV under Three Road Conditions

#### 5.1.2. BEV 0–100 km/h Acceleration Performance Test

#### 5.1.3. BEV Cruising Performance Test

#### 5.2. Simulation Results of Fuel-Cell Vehicle (FCV)

#### 5.2.1. Joint Distribution of Velocity, Accelerated Velocity and Fuel-Cell Power of FCV under Three Road Conditions

#### 5.2.2. 0–100 km/h Acceleration Performance Test

#### 5.2.3. FCV Cruising Performance Test

#### 5.3. Test Results of Fuel-Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle (FCHEV)

#### 5.3.1. New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) Condition

#### 5.3.2. 0–100 km/h Acceleration Performance

#### 5.3.3. FCHEV Cruising Performance Test

#### 5.3.4. Energy Consumption

## 6. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 5.**Changes in power of three models under CLTC-P (China light-duty vehicle test cycle-passenger car).

**Figure 12.**Joint distribution of velocity, acceleration and power of FCV under three real-world driving cycles.

**Figure 16.**Changes in fuel cell and lithium battery power of FCHEV under New European Driving Cycle (NEDC).

Parameter | Value |
---|---|

Overall height | 1537 mm |

Overall width | 1816 mm |

Overall length | 4890 mm |

Curb weight | 1848 kg |

Hydrogen tank volume | 122.4 L |

Maximum power | 114 kW |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Sun, Z.; Wen, Z.; Zhao, X.; Yang, Y.; Li, S. Real-World Driving Cycles Adaptability of Electric Vehicles. *World Electr. Veh. J.* **2020**, *11*, 19.
https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj11010019

**AMA Style**

Sun Z, Wen Z, Zhao X, Yang Y, Li S. Real-World Driving Cycles Adaptability of Electric Vehicles. *World Electric Vehicle Journal*. 2020; 11(1):19.
https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj11010019

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Sun, Zhicheng, Zui Wen, Xin Zhao, Yunpeng Yang, and Su Li. 2020. "Real-World Driving Cycles Adaptability of Electric Vehicles" *World Electric Vehicle Journal* 11, no. 1: 19.
https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj11010019