Therapies against stroke can restore the blood supply but cannot prevent the ischemic damage nor stimulate the recovery of the infarcted zone. The neuroglobin protein plays an important role in the neuro-regeneration process after stroke; however, the method for its effective systemic application has not been identified yet, as neuroglobin is unable to pass through the blood-brain barrier. Previously, we developed different types of sodium hyaluronate nanoparticles, which successfully cross the blood-brain barrier after stroke. In this work, these nanoparticles have been used to carry neuroglobin through the bloodstream to the nerve cells in rats submitted to stroke. We have biosynthesized rat-recombinant neuroglobin and determined the formulation of sodium hyaluronate nanoparticles loaded with neuroglobin, as well as its size and ζ-potential, encapsulation efficiently, in vitro release, and its kinetic of liberation. The results show that the formulation achieved is highly compatible with pharmaceutical use and may act as a delivery system to transport neuroglobin within the blood. We have found that this formulation injected intravenously immediately after stroke reached the damaged cerebral parenchyma at early stages (2 h). Neuroglobin colocalizes with its nanocarriers inside the nerve cells and remains after 24 h of reperfusion. In conclusion, the systemic administration of neuroglobin linked to nanoparticles is a potential neuroprotective drug-delivery strategy after stroke episodes.
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