This study aimed to establish a physiologically relevant in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) model reflecting site-dependent dissolution kinetics for sildenafil based on population-pharmacokinetic (POP-PK) modeling. An immediate release (IR, 20 mg) and three sustained release (SR, 60 mg) sildenafil tablets were prepared by wet granulation method. In vitro dissolutions were determined by the paddle method at pH 1.2, 4.5, and 6.8 media. The in vivo pharmacokinetics were assessed after oral administration of the prepared IR and SR formulations to Beagle dogs (n
= 12). The dissolution of sildenafil from SR formulations was incomplete at pH 6.8, which was not observed at pH 1.2 and pH 4.5. The relative bioavailability was reduced with the decrease of the dissolution rate. Moreover, secondary peaks were observed in the plasma concentration-time curves, which may result from site-dependent dissolution. Thus, a POP-PK model was developed to reflect the site-dependent dissolution by separately describing the dissolution and absorption processes, which allowed for estimation of the in vivo dissolution of sildenafil. Finally, an IVIVC was established and validated by correlating the in vitro and in vivo dissolution rates. The present approach may be applied to establish IVIVC for various drugs with complex dissolution kinetics for the development of new formulations.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited