Positive-strand RNA (+RNA) viruses are an important group of human and animal pathogens that have significant global health and economic impacts. Notable members include West Nile virus, Dengue virus, Chikungunya, Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus and enteroviruses of the Picornaviridae family.Unfortunately, prophylactic and therapeutic treatments against these pathogens are limited. +RNA viruses have limited coding capacity and thus rely extensively on host factors for successful infection and propagation. A common feature among these viruses is their ability to dramatically modify cellular membranes to serve as platforms for genome replication and assembly of new virions. These viral replication complexes (VRCs) serve two main functions: To increase replication efficiency by concentrating critical factors and to protect the viral genome from host anti-viral systems. This review summarizes current knowledge of critical host factors recruited to or demonstrated to be involved in the biogenesis and stabilization of +RNA virus VRCs.
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