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Article

Regulatory T Cells Decreased during Recovery from Mild COVID-19

1
Department of Biomedical Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla 90110, Thailand
2
Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla 90110, Thailand
3
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla 90110, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Kenzo Tokunaga and Jérôme Estaquier
Viruses 2022, 14(8), 1688; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14081688
Received: 14 June 2022 / Revised: 26 July 2022 / Accepted: 26 July 2022 / Published: 30 July 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Basic Sciences for the Conquest of COVID-19)
Depending on the intensity and duration of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the host immune response plays a significant role in immunological protection. Here, we studied the regulatory T-cell (Treg) response in relation to kinetic change and cytokine production in patients with mild COVID-19. Nineteen SARS-CoV-2-positive patients were recruited, and blood was collected at four time points, i.e., seven days after admission, after discharge, and one and three months after recovery. CD3+CD4+CD25+CD127low was marked as the Treg population, with IL-10 and TGF-β used to study cytokine-producing Tregs. IFN-γ-producing CD8+ T cells were observed for an effector response. The Treg percentage in patients with mild COVID-19 increased during hospitalization compared to during the recovery period. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were quantified, and the T-cell response was characterized by re-stimulation with S1 and N peptides. IL-10 and TGF-β were produced by CD25+CD127low T cells during the active infection phase, especially with N peptide stimulation. Compared to N peptide stimulation, S1 peptide stimulation provided superior IFN-γ-secreting CD8+ T-cell responses. Our results suggest that while IFN-γ+CD8+ T cells confer antiviral immunity, cytokine-producing Tregs may have a substantial role in regulating inflammatory responses in mild SARS-CoV-2 infection. Novel vaccine development may also consider enhancing T-cell repertoires. View Full-Text
Keywords: regulatory T cells; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; immune response; cytokine production; PMBC; viral peptides; inflammatory response regulatory T cells; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; immune response; cytokine production; PMBC; viral peptides; inflammatory response
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    Doi: 10.5281/zenodo.6640885
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    Description: Figure S1: Gating strategy for Treg identification. Figure S2. IFN-γ+ CD4+T-cell responses in COVID-19 patients. Table S1: Fluorochrome conjugated antibodies for flow cytometry analysis. Table S2: Amino acid sequences of N peptides of SARS-CoV-2 Table S3: Amino acid sequences of S1 peptides of SARS-CoV-2
MDPI and ACS Style

Seepathomnarong, P.; Ongarj, J.; Sophonmanee, R.; Seeyankem, B.; Chusri, S.; Surasombatpattana, S.; Pinpathomrat, N. Regulatory T Cells Decreased during Recovery from Mild COVID-19. Viruses 2022, 14, 1688. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14081688

AMA Style

Seepathomnarong P, Ongarj J, Sophonmanee R, Seeyankem B, Chusri S, Surasombatpattana S, Pinpathomrat N. Regulatory T Cells Decreased during Recovery from Mild COVID-19. Viruses. 2022; 14(8):1688. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14081688

Chicago/Turabian Style

Seepathomnarong, Purilap, Jomkwan Ongarj, Ratchanon Sophonmanee, Bunya Seeyankem, Sarunyou Chusri, Smonrapat Surasombatpattana, and Nawamin Pinpathomrat. 2022. "Regulatory T Cells Decreased during Recovery from Mild COVID-19" Viruses 14, no. 8: 1688. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14081688

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