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Article

A Polyvalent Broad-Spectrum Escherichia Phage Tequatrovirus EP01 Capable of Controlling Salmonella and Escherichia coli Contamination in Foods

College of Animal Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Bin Li and Wenliang Li
Viruses 2022, 14(2), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14020286
Received: 17 December 2021 / Revised: 23 January 2022 / Accepted: 24 January 2022 / Published: 29 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Veterinary Virology Research in China)
Salmonella and Escherichia coli (E. coli) food contamination could lead to serious foodborne diseases. The gradual increase in the incidence of foodborne disease invokes new and efficient methods to limit food pathogenic microorganism contamination. In this study, a polyvalent broad-spectrum Escherichia phage named Tequatrovirus EP01 was isolated from pig farm sewage. It could lyse both Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) and E. coli and exhibited broad host range. EP01 possessed a short latent period (10 min), a large burst size (80 PFU/cell), and moderate pH stability (4–10) and appropriate thermal tolerance (30–80 °C). Electron microscopy and genome sequence revealed that EP01 belonged to T4-like viruses genus, Myoviridae family. EP01 harbored 12 CDSs associated with receptor-binding proteins and lacked virulence genes and drug resistance genes. We tested the inhibitory effect of EP01 on S. Enteritidis, E. coli O157:H7, E. coli O114:K90 (B90), and E. coli O142:K86 (B) in liquid broth medium (LB). EP01 could significantly reduce the counts of all tested strains compared with phage-free groups. We further examined the effectiveness of EP01 in controlling bacterial contamination in two kinds of foods (meat and milk) contaminated with S. Enteritidis, E. coli O157:H7, E. coli O114:K90 (B90), and E. coli O142:K86 (B), respectively. EP01 significantly reduced the viable counts of all the tested bacteria (2.18–6.55 log10 CFU/sample, p < 0.05). A significant reduction of 6.55 log10 CFU/cm2 (p < 0.001) in bacterial counts on the surface of meat was observed with EP01 treatment. Addition of EP01 at MOI of 1 decreased the counts of bacteria by 4.3 log10 CFU/mL (p < 0.001) in milk. Generally, the inhibitory effect exhibited more stable at 4 °C than that at 28 °C, whereas the opposite results were observed in milk. The antibacterial effects were better at MOI of 1 than that at MOI of 0.001. These results suggests that phage EP01-based method is a promising strategy of controlling Salmonella and Escherichia coli pathogens to limit microbial food contamination. View Full-Text
Keywords: Salmonella; Escherichia coli; food contamination; polyvalent broad-spectrum phage Salmonella; Escherichia coli; food contamination; polyvalent broad-spectrum phage
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhou, Y.; Li, L.; Han, K.; Wang, L.; Cao, Y.; Ma, D.; Wang, X. A Polyvalent Broad-Spectrum Escherichia Phage Tequatrovirus EP01 Capable of Controlling Salmonella and Escherichia coli Contamination in Foods. Viruses 2022, 14, 286. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14020286

AMA Style

Zhou Y, Li L, Han K, Wang L, Cao Y, Ma D, Wang X. A Polyvalent Broad-Spectrum Escherichia Phage Tequatrovirus EP01 Capable of Controlling Salmonella and Escherichia coli Contamination in Foods. Viruses. 2022; 14(2):286. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14020286

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhou, Yuqing, Lei Li, Kaiou Han, Leping Wang, Yajie Cao, Dongxin Ma, and Xiaoye Wang. 2022. "A Polyvalent Broad-Spectrum Escherichia Phage Tequatrovirus EP01 Capable of Controlling Salmonella and Escherichia coli Contamination in Foods" Viruses 14, no. 2: 286. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14020286

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